Satyrus ferula (Fabricius, 1793) (= actaea auct.).


The eastern european ssp. virbius Herrich-Schäffer, 1843 extends to the eastern Urals. In the S. Zauralye and in the southern W. Siberia flies the ssp. altaica Grum-Grshimailo, 1893 (TL is Semipalatinsk) with a more variegated pattern of the UNH due to the dark spots and two light bands on the exterior field. The butterflies from Tuva were described as the ssp. medvedevi.


Satyrus ferula medvedevi Korshunov, 1996 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

Translation of the original description:

...The butterflies from Tuva, differing by bright and motled pattern of the UNH, with a contrasted band, are described as Satyrus ferula medvedevi Korshunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 27 mm. On the UNF the ocellus with a white pupil is almost four-fold larger than the lower one (in altaica the ocelli are smaller and almost of the same size). On the marbled UNH the band is rimmed with waving black lines, the line of the same brightness and outline is conspicuous at the outer margin.

ALLOTYPE: A female. FWl. 26 mm. On the FW the large black ocelli with white pupils are equal in size on both sides. The UNH ground color is lighter than in males, it is brownish-gray, with white scales along the outer margin of the band and just at the wing margin. There are two black dots at the ventral angle, that about 2 mm in diameter and a much smaller one.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂- 19.07.1972, Tuva, Moren. The allotype: ♀ - 23.07.1988, Tuva, the Kyzyl environs (V. Zinchenko). Paratypes: 4 ♂♂ - 18-30.07.1960, 40 km west of [the village] Samagaltai, the surroundings of [the village] Khol-Ezhu, a grass/absinth and other type steppes; 2 ♂♂ - 10.07.1961, Turan, Angol (A. Gukasyan); a male - 19.07.1972, Moren; 2 ♂♂ 6 ♀♀, 10-23.07.1990, 35 km NWW of Samagaltai, the Shivilig-Khem basin (O. Kosterin).

The males are much more close to each other in appearance than the females, among which there are individuals much darker above but, on the contrary, lighter beneath than the allotype.

The ssp. is dedicated to the memory of my teacher Sergei Ivanovich Medvedev (1899-1979), who worked in Siberia when he was young.

Origin: Dopolnenie 1, Novosibirsk, 1996, p. 37.

The specimens from the Amur Distr. were described as the ssp. sergeevi. It turned out that the specimens from the Chita Distr. belong to the ssp. liupiuschani Bang-Haas, 1930. Their UNF have no ochre tint as in sergeevi.

Specimens from the Chita and Amur Distr. were described as ferula sergeevi:


Satyrus ferula sergeevi Dubatolov et Streltzov, 1999 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

Original description:

Satyrus ferula sergeevi subspec. nov.

Holotype ─ female: Amur Distr., 17 km SSW of Svobodnyi [] town, Malaya Sazanka village, 19.VII.1994, Streltzov leg. Paratypes: 22 males, 18 females, same locality, 20.,23.VII.1994, Streltzov leg; 17 males 6 females, same locality, 13.-14.VII. 1998, Dubatolov, Streltzov leg.

Female: FWl. 33 mm in the holotype, 29-33 mm in paratypes. The UPS is very dark brown with a slightly lighter postdiscal band, becoming dirty-yellow around the ocelli. The FW has 2 large black ocelli, centered with blueish-white cores, as in all the other Siberian ssp. Small bluish-white spots on the postdiscal band of the UPF are present between the veins M2 and M3, M3 and CuA. The pattern of the underside is very variable, of a general type as in S. ferula medvedevi Korshunov, 1996 and S. ferula liupiuschani Bang-Haas, 1933, namely, the light pattern is rather contrasted, especialy along the dark median band, but the UNH always bears a noticable yellowish tint.

Male: FWl. 29-33 vv. The UPS is deep dark-brown, almost black. The FW usually has 2 postdiscal ocelli of different expression, centered with blueish-white cores. Usually there are small bluish-white spots on the discal wing part between the veins M2 and M3, M3 and CuA. The pattern of the UNS is very variable, of a general type as in S. ferula medvedevi Korshunov, 1996 and S. ferula liupiuschani Bang-Haas, 1933, namely, the light pattern is rather contrasted, especialy along the dark median band.

The male and female genitalia do not deviate from the sp. structure. The new ssp. is named in honour of Prof. M. G. Sergeev (Novosibirsk, Russia), a friend of the first author and a teacher of the second.

Origin: Atalanta (Dezember, 1999) 30 (1/4): 125-129, colour plate XIa, Wurzburg.

It turned out that specimens from the Chita Distr. belong to ssp. liupiustani Bang-Haas, 1930. Their UNF has no ochre tint well expressed in sergeevi.


Pseudochazara tshujaca Korshunov, 1998 (= pallida auct.)


The form pallida Staudinger 1901 was stated on the specimens from Spain (Granada, Andalusia) and on the Altaian collections of Elwes. As still N. J. Kuznetsov [Kuznetzov, 1909] has noted, the name pallida is useful for designation of any small and pale butterfly. In this situation it is correct for us to introduce the new name in a hope that someone who would designate a lectotype of pallida would choose a Spanish specimen and would not attempt to blur our initiative, as it recently occurred with lederi and the close taxa. The sp. tshujaca is apparently an endemic of the Altai, in this respect it resembles the Crimean euxina. While in Crimea the island isolation explains much, in the Altai the reasons could be more complicated, perhaps the gene drift or a special reaction to the extreme highland conditions. The male genital apparatus is slightly affected, there is no specific differences from hippolyte, as well as in euxina. V. Ivonin has noticed that in tshujaka and hippolyte, except for the difference in the visible androconial spots, there is a difference in the androconial scales and also in disposition and coloring of scales on the antennal club: in hyppolyte the entire club is scale-clad, while in tshujaca only in part.


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