Triphysa albovenosa Ershov, 1885 (= phryne auct.)


Triphysa albovenosa sacha Korshunov, 1996 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Translation of the original description:

«HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 18 mm. UPS is blackish-gray with a steel flash, without any pattern, only dots or ocelli of the underside appear through slightly. The UNS is as in T. albovenosa, but there are small dots or ocelli in the outer field, the second one of which on the HW even has a white pupil. There are three dots and one ocellus on the FW, the HW has five small black ocelli between the veins, the third from above being a dot. In some paratypes the dots are only on the HW, in two paratypes they are hardly noticeable at all.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl.: 15 mm. The UPS is grayish-white, the underside pattern is appearing through the wing. On the UNS there are very small black dots: four on the FW and five on the HW. The zone between the outer field and the base is mottled due to gray spots of different sizes. In other females these gray spots fuse to each other, in one female the UNS is as in the males,the dots are large, especially on the FW.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂ — 7.06.1985, Yakutsk, the botanical garden (Dubatolov). The allotype: ♀ – 9.06.1985, the same locality. Paratypes: ♀ and 2 ♂♂ – 13.06.1968, Yakutsk, Chuńhur-Muran; ♂ and ♀ – 10.06.1974, Khaptagai, the Tamma River valley (Ammosov); ♂ – 1.06.1977, at the settlement Oktemtsy; 3 ♂♂ 1 ♀ – 28-31.05.1989, Yakutsk, the botanical garden (Dubatolov);10 ♂♂ 10 ♀♀ – 7-9.06.1985, the same locality; a male  –  1.06.1985, 5 km of Yakutsk on the road to Magadan, a bogged rivulet valley (Dubatolov).

Thus, the range of a new ssp. lies within Yakutia. It is noteworthy that the Suntar-Khayata Mt. Range in E. Yakutia is inhabited by different butterflies, close to the ssp. tscherskii Crum-Grshimailo, 1899. It has a somewhat darker ground color on the UNS, the light veins being more conspiculus as compared with other ssp. This ssp. ranges widely in E. Siberia, it was also found in Transuralia and West Chukotka.»

Origin: Dopolnenie 1, Novosibirsk, 1996, pp. 30-31.

The ssp. albovenosa occurs in Priamurye and Primorye. The ssp. sacha was described from the Prilenskoe Plateau. In the E. Yakutia and Suntar-Khayata Mt. Range we find other butterflies similar to the ssp. tscherskii Grum-Grshimailo, 1899 having somewhat darker background of the UNS in comparison with other ssp., the light veins are clearer visible. The ssp. tscherskii is widespread in the E. Siberia and is found in Zauralye and in the the western Chukotka.

SYSTEMATIC NOTES. There are two names older than albovenosa: dohrni Zeller, 1850 (the description was made for the unique specimen caught supposedly in S. Russia although a Siberian origin seems more probable; this specimen was lost in the 19th century) and nervosa Motschulsky, 1866 (the description was made for Japan, where Triphysa is not present!). The diagnoses by Motschulsky and Zeller don’t coincide, and the diagnosis of the latter is similar to glacialis.


Coenonympha glycerion (Borkhausen, 1788) (= amyntas Poda, 1761, iphis [Denis et Schiffermüller], 1775)


The nominotypical ssp. occurs as far east as W. Altai. In the upper reaches of the Ob River and further in the mountains there occurs the ssp. iphicles Staudinger, 1892; these butterflies have more or less perceptible ochre rings on the UPH and enlarged spots with ochre borders on the UNH (in glycerion they are yellowish). The ssp. heroides Christoph, 1893 from the Lena R. basin [Korshunov, Ammosov, 1978] has rather larger spots. The ssp. beljaevi was described from S. Primorye.


Coenonympha glycerion beljaevi Dubatolov, ssp. n. (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Original description:

«Coenonympha glycerion beljaevi Dubatolov, ssp. n. (Figs 21-22)

MATERIAL. Holotype: ♂, Southern Primorye, Spassk Distr., Novovladimirovka village, 27.VI 1978 (Barkalov). Paratypes: ♀, the same locality. 27.VI 1978 (Barkalov); 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Southern Primorye, Anuchino Distr. 1.3-21 km NNW of Chernyshevka village, 12-17.VII 1993 (Dubalolov, Zmishcnko): ♀. 2-3 km N of Chernyshevka village, 5.VII 1995 (Dubalolov, Dudko).

DESCRIPTION, MALE. FWl. 17-19 mm. The UPS is evenly dark brown with a narrow reddish margin, usually without any visible-through dark spots along the HW margin. The wing base has the same color as the main part of the wing. The underside is of the same color, but slightly lighter. The FW bears a small apical ocellus and has a reduced white postdiscal band between the veins M1 and M2 (most paratypes have no such band). The HW has a row of very large ocelli with wide black and orange rings, therefore the orange rims fuse and form an orange band. Proximally to the row of ocelli there are remainders of the white postdiscal band, consisting of 2 spots: an irregular one between the veins M2 and CuA with proximal tooth on the vein M3 and a small one placed between the veins Cu1’ and A2. There is a narrow silvery band along the HW edge.

FEMALE. FWl. 16-19 mm, the UPS is brown with light-orange margin, a visible-through apical ocellus on the FW and orange ocelli along the HW margin. The pattern on the UNH is as in males, but the white nuclei within the black ocelli are very wide, up to 1 mm in diameter. The UNF has an apical ocellus and 2-3 ocelli in the spaces 2, 3 and 4 and a well-developed postdiscal band between the stem R and the vein Cu1.

DISTRIBUTION. Russia: Primorski Territory (Siniy Mt. Range).

REMARKS. The new ssp. differs from the South Siberian C. g. iphicles Staudinger, 1892 by an usual absence of a visible-through ocellus on the male UPH (figs. 21-22), which is well visible in C. g. ipflicles (figs 23-24): the black rings of the UNH ocelli in C. g. beljaevi are wide, their width is considerably larger than the distance between the rings, whereas the width of these rings in C. g. iphicles is considerably less than the distance between them. The orange rims of ocelli of C. g. iphicles are not fused but well separated from each other. The nominotypical ssp. C. g. glycerion (Borkhausen, 1788) from Europe and West Siberia has very small ocelli on the UNH, their diameter often being less than the distance between them (figs 25-26). In appearance the new ssp. is most similar to the Yakutian C. g. hercules Christoph, 1893 (described from «Witim» and «Wilui»). The UNH ocelli of the latter ssp. are also large, with large white centers, but the centers are smaller and the orange rings around the ocelli are narrower (figs 27- 28) and are not fused into a band (at least in the males), as in the new ssp. The FWl. of the Yakutian C. g. heroines is much smaller (14-15.5 mm)».

Origin: Far East. Entomol. 1997, No. 44, pp. 8-10, Figs 21-28.


Coenonympha amaryllis (Stoll, 1782)


From the Urals across the S. Siberia the ssp. amaryllis is widespread. The taxon rinda Ménétriés, 1859 was described on the basis of an an aberrant specimen from the Amur valley. This fact has ben was forgotten. In Seitz’s work the rinda is depicted differently; its image in the table doesn’t even resemble rinda. The available specimens from Priamurye and the E. Siberia are similar to the Manchuro-Korean ssp. accrescens Staudinger, 1901 (with a complete set of ocelli). This ssp. was captured in the basin of Ussuri, as well. As to the butterflies like rinda, they are to be found, for example, in the basin of Zeya, but they are not so frequent and differ by a distinct degree of reduction of the ocelli and others elements of the pattern. The largest and most peculiar specimens of amaryllis are described by us as the ssp. borisovi.


Ńooenonympha amaryllis borisovi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1996 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

Translation of the original description:

«...The largest and peculiar butterflies among amaryllis have been found in Pribaikalye, which are decribed as C. amaryllis borisovi Korshunov et Ivonin, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl.: 20 mm. The UPS is ochre-yellow. There are two large and two small black dots on the FW and five large dots and a dark marginal rim on the HW. On the underside there are very large, contrasted ocelli with silvery pupils and a relatively wide silvery streak along the margins. The fringe is light. On the most part of the sp. the butterflies have the underside without any pattern, that on the underside is more dull, the ocelli are smaller than in borisovi.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂ – 24.06.1988, Baikal, the v. Listvyanka (Ivonin). Paratypes: 2 ♂♂ – 30.06.1983, the same locality (Yu. Timoshenko), 3 ♂♂ -24.06.1988, the same locality  –  20.06.1991, the Verkhne-Angarskii mountain range, the environs of Severobaikal’sk (Ivonin). All the butterflies were collected on steppefied mountain slopes. The ssp. is named by the surname of a Decemberist Borisov, Petr Ivanovich (1800-1854), the author of first aquarel portraits of Lepidoptera of Baikal.»

Origin: Dopolnenie 1, Novosibirsk, 1996, p. 31.

We introduce here the following improvements into the description of borisovi.

The FW are 19-21 mm long. Some specimens have clearly discernible black points on the FW and the HW, the other have less visible or almost imperceptible dots. The largest dots are about 1 mm in diameter at the apex and on the ventral part of the HW, where 2-3 dots are usually visible. Other points are sometimes as small as twice and are hidden among the distinct ochre flakes. The quite narrow dark border of the UPS is more appreciable on the HW; it is present on the FW, too, although there are specimens whose border is hardly noticeable. A paratype specimen has clearly visible dark spots on the fringe of the FW. The UNF has single or double ocelli at the apex and two ocelli below, the HW with six ocelli surrounded by ochre rings; they form an arc along the outer border. Between this arc and the edge of the wing a silver sinuous band is visible, and the inner edge of the arc has a white band. The white mark is located opposite the central cell and near the lowermost ocellus (it is not clearly perceptable in all specimens). The ocelli on the FW are generally framed the same way, but they have no ochre rings and are enclosed in light scales. The large cores of the ocelli seem to be silvery, especially seen in the bright light, but they are actually white. It is necessary to add to the paratypes a male from Pad Chernaja near Baikal from 3.07.1959. As a rule all specimens have ochre UNF and ash-gray UNH. Furthermore, the genital apparatus of borisovi is quite distinct, sufficiently so at times to justify separating it from the other suibsp.On the figure one can discern a narrow and oblong subuncus, as well as a specific form and size of the valva and of the aedeagus. One notes a certain resemblance to the chinese ssp. of amaryllis, accrescens Staudinger, 1901. But its habitat is remote and the image in Seitz (tabl. 48f) nor only doesn’t coincide with our ssp., but is even notably different.”

Origin: Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p. 22.


Hyponephele cadusina (Staudinger, 1881) (= chamyla auct., kirgisa auct.)


Among the specimens I caught in the Katun River valley the ssp. gurkini has been described as Hyponephele cadusina gurkini Korshunov, 1995.


Hyponephele cadusina gurkini Korshunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Translation of the original description:

«...A new ssp. Hyponephele cadusina gurkini Korshunov, ssp. n. is described on materials from Central Altai, differing from the nominotypical one by the following features: on the UPF the yellow field is pale, the dot between the veins Cu1 and Cu2 is larger, the dark margin on the UNH is wider, the UNS is more evenly colored, the dots at the ventral angle are smaller.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl.: 20 mm. The UPS is brown, the HW is evenly colored, the FW has a wide ochre-yellow spot on the outer field. In the apical part of this spot there is a black ocellus with a light pupil and as small as twice black dot below it, between the veins Cu1 and Cu2. A black androconial brand is covered by brown scales along its fore and hind margins. The UNF is ground-yellow with a relatively wide dark marginal band and a light-rimmed apical ocellus. The UNH is gray with brown marble which does not form transversal bands, as is observed in cadusina.

MATERIALS: the holtype – 1st July 1974, Central Altai, a steppefied bank slope of the Katun’ River near its junction with the Chuya River, (Yu.P. Korshunov leg.). Paratypes: – 2 ♂♂, 1st July 1974, the same locality.

The ssp. is dedicated to the memory of an Altaian painter Gurkin Grigori Ivanovich (1869-1937)»

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 121.


Erebia ligea (Linnaeus, 1758)


The butterflies from the Polar and Subpolar Urals and the S. Yamals have blind, frequently prolated ocelli on the FW and reducted androconial spots, they look a bit like the Lapland ssp. dovrensis Strand, 1902. In the rest of the Urals as far as Prisayanye inclusive occurs the ssp. kamensis Krulikowsky, 1909. This butterfly has a relative reduction of the white band on the UNS of the HW. From the Altai as far as the Pacific Ocean the ssp. åumonia Ménétriés, 1859 (= ajanensis auct., koreana Matsumura, 1928) is found. This ssp. is remarkable for yellow-brown coloring of the narrower bands of the FW as compared to kamensis (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).. This ssp. was described on the basis of five females and twelve males in Shrenk’s collection from the Khadzhi Gulf (nowadays Soviet Harbour). The butterflies from Sakhalin similar to eumonia were described as takanonis f. sachalinensis Matsumura, 1919. In Kamchatka the butterflies are known as kamtschadalus Goltz, 1932: their band on the FW is devided by veins and consists of separate spots.


A complex Erebia euryale (Esper, 1805)


We adduce here a supplementary information and descriptions especially concerning the eastern taxa of butterflies of the Erebia euryale and E. adyte groups. The given publication ascertains the former information [Korshunov 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000] about euryale in thje E. Europe and in the the Uralian Mountains.


Erebia euryaloides Tengström, 1869, stat. n.


The taxon was described as Erebia ligea euryaloides Tengström, 1889.

The original description by Tengström: “Minor, alis anticis supra ocellis obsoletis l. inocellatis, subtus fascia rufa bsin bersus indeterminata diffusaque, alis posticis infra obscure brunneis fascia pallidiori (l. albida luteo irrorata in fem.) ocellisque evanescentibus… Infra limites Fenniae politicos.” [Tengström in Warren 1936:71].

NOTE. According to Warren [Warren, 1936:71-72], “its principal characters are as follows: The bands on the upperside of the forewings are broken up into spots, and this feature is more marked on the hinwings, the spots there often being reduced in size and some of them wanting. Two very small black dots at the apex of the forewings are all that remain of the usual black spots; in some specimens even these two are lost also, but more frequently the can be descerned. The underside of the hindwinds is of the isarica type of markings, the antemarginal band usually fairly distinct, strongly dusted with silver but without spots; a distinct basal band is usually present. Occasionally the silver streak along the inner edge of the antemarginal band is very clear, but even in such specimens it is typically a “euryale” streak and not a “ligea” one… Of the other ssp. or forms of euryale, euryaloides perhaps resembles segregata the most; on the whole, however, the euryaloides markings are much more stable, and the absense of thq black spots, other than the two apical ones, together with the more pronounced marking of the underside of the hindwings (also without spots), give true evryaloides a fairly distinctive appearance. Unfortunately I have not seen a female”.

About the geographical distribution of butterflies B. Warren writes only that “ssp. euryaloides in the Uralian Mountains only varies aberrationally from the Finnish race…”. But the material from the Urals as well as from the western territories was in that time very scant, and Warren was caused to write that “the limits of the distribiution of euryaloides in Finland are very little known, but it is not likely that it is very localized. It extends eastwards from Finland into Russia, and I have seen specimens fros as far as north as the northern end of Lake Onega. Far to the east the insect reappears un the Ural Moumtains, and of its range there little or nothing is known This, however, is the most easterly locality known for euryale

The result of investigation of the available materials of butterflies united by Warren in the ssp. euryaloides is as follows.

Firstly, there are reasons to raise the status of euryaloides up to a specifical one (see argumentation below). There are some good ssp. inside of the sp. euryaloides.

Secondly, the Uralian Erebia iremelica must be separated from euryaloides whose specific status is based on the structure of male genitalia, on the antemarginal band shape and on common fly of two sp. in some Uralian regions. The features assumed by Warren as typical for euryaloides,  characterize postulated by us ssp. flaveoides, zhuravskyi and taiga; they, however, don’t correlate with Erebia iremelica’ features.

Thirdly, the nominotypical ssp. E. euryaloides euryaloides doesn’t occur in the NW taiga zone from Europe as far as the Urals, the tundras beyond the the polar circle and in the Ural Mts.― it follows from the original Tengström’s description of females with a golden-yellow UNH band. The question about the area of the nominotypical form remains open: according to Tengström, it flies within the state boundaries of Finland, but it is not clear which part of this country within the XIX s. limits could be meant. By ty way E. euryaloides is not indicated for Kola pen. The extreme trustworthy western point of the caught of E. euryaloides is Kosmozero, Medvezhjegorski reg., Karelian ASSR (the north end of Lake Onega) [Warren, 1936, table…, fig. …]. It is not excluded that Karelia is the extreme eastern point of the area of E. euryaloides. It is necessary to find out its exact area and at least its presence within the contemporary Finland.

Fourthly, the described by Poppius polar f. arctica results an ecolofical form of E. euryaloides taiga (it is genetically analogous to polar forms of E. e. flaveoides) ― it follows from the geographical distribution of females with silver-white and yellow UNH band. The f. arctica and similar tiny specimens of flaveoides differ from their southern analogues in size only, being their “tiny copies”.

Translation of the original descriptions:


Erebia euryaloides zhuravskyi Nikolaev et Korshunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE ― ♂. Body black, antennae and legs dark-brown from above, whitish from below. The UPS brown. FWl 21 mm. The band is rusty-red, divided by thin dark-brown veins; it is placed between R5―2V (almost reaching 2V). It is evenly narrowing from the inner side downwards to the ventral edge forming a blunt “peg” betwen Cu2―2V. The band at outer edge is flat. There are blind ocelli betwen M1―M2 and M2―M3. The UPH band is colored identically, it is between Rs―M3. 2 rusty-red spots (colored darker that the band) are between M3―Cu1 and Cu1―Cu2. The first one is narrower than the band, the second one is narrower than the first. Ocelli (dots) are absent.

The UNS are dark-brown. A transversal rusty-red band passes throug from Rs as far as 2V, it is diffused in its inner edge between M3―Cu2. The lower part of the central cell and the discal zone between M3―Cu2 are rusty-red (and are darker than the band). The band bears black dots betwen M1―M2 and M2―M3. The background is a little darker than this of the UNF. The band is silver-gray between the costal edge and the vein 3V, its outer edge is diffused, the inner one is marked with silver-gray scales. A small silver-white triangular spot (“streak”) is between the band and the central cell over M3; a similar darker and smaller spot is on Cu2. Along the outer edge of the band between M2―M3 and Cu1―Cu2 are two red spots with distinct dark dots in the middle. The fringe is chequered, with alternating of equal white and brown parcels.

The valva tip is stretched, bearing short teeth at the front and from above. The apical edge is gentle-sloped bearing rather evenly posited thick teeth of the average size. The dorsal edge bears sparse large teeth whose dots form a straight line. The valva hair is thin, mostly short, the “brush” on the top of valvae isn’t dense.

ALLOTYPE ― ♀. The background of the UPS is dark-brown. FWl 21 mm. The shape and coloring of the outer zone band is like in the male. The “seeing” ocelli are between M1―M2, M2―M3, a blind ocellus between Cu1―Cu2. 5 separated postdiscal rusty-red spots between R2―Cu2 are on the UPH, the 5th spot includes a “seeing” ocellus. The 5th spot is round, the other are roundish. The 4th and 5th spots have the same width, they are narrower than the 3th one.

The UNF background is dark-rusty-red. The costal and outer borders are dusted with sparse silver-white scales. The band (R2―2V) is rusty-red (it is lighter than the background), very light between R5―M3; its inner edge is diffused between M3―2V. The UNH background is brown. The basal band is silver-white, consisting of sparse scales. The passing through the whole wing posdiscal band is silver-white, its inner edge is distinct, bearing a protuberance over M3; the later almost reaches the central cell. The outer edge of the band is suffudes. 3 rusty-red spots are along the outer edge between M1―M2, M2―M3 and Cu1―Cu2. The “seeing” ocelli are between M2―M3 and Cu1―Cu2. The fringe is like in male.

MATERIALS. Holotype ― ♂, the Urals, Kos’vinski Kamen’ mt., the top of “podgol’tsovy” zone, 15.07.1974 (Yu. Baranchikov). Allotype ― ♀, the Urals, env. of Kytlym, spruce-fir-cedar forest, 18.07.1974 (Yu. Baranchikov). Paratypes ― 4♂, 10.07.71, Katav-Ivanovsk (Sablin); 1♂, 12.07.65, 1♂, 17.07.65, ibidem (Sablin); 1♂ 15.07.74, 2♂ 17.07.74, Kos’vinski Kamen’ mt., the top of the «predgol’tsovy» zona (Yu. N. Baranchikov).

DISTRIBUTION. Mountains of the North, Middle and South Urals (to the N as far as 62° N).

ETYMOLOGY. The ssp. is named in honour of the researcher of the Northern Preduralye Andrei Vladimirovich Zhuravsky (1882―1914).


Erebia euryaloides taiga Nikolaev et Korshunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE – a male. Body black, antennae and legs dark-brown from above, yellowish from below. UPS brown. FWl 21 mm. The band is rusty-red, divided by dark-brown veins, it is placed between the veins R5 and 2V. The band between M1―M2, M2―M3 is a little wider than between the other veins. The large blind ocelli are between M1―M2 and M2―M3, there is a hardly seen black dot at the outer edge of the band between Cu1―Cu2 on the right wing. The outer edge of the band is flat. The antemarginal band on the UPH consists of 5 separate rosty-red spots betwen Rs―Cu2, therefrom the spots between M1―M2, M2―M3 are more stretched. Ocelli (dots) absent.

The UNS is dark-brown. There is a rusty-red band on the UNF between the veins Rs―2V, it’s inner edge is diffused between Cu2―2V. The lower part of the central cell and the discal zone between V2 and the inner edge of the wing are rusty-red (a little less brigher than the band). A “seeing” ocellus is between M―M2, a blind one between M2―M3 (the later is smaller than the first). The background of the UNH is equal to UNF’s one. The antemarginal band is absent. The outer edge is a little lighter than the basal one due to the dusting of sparse goldish scales. Silver-white angular spots are on the inner edge of the “outer zone”, their tips are directed to the base of the wing, they are situated on the veins Rs, M1, M2, Cu1 and Cu2. A silver-white “streak” is above the vein M3, its tip reaches the central cell.

The fringe of wings is motley, with an alternation of equal in size white and brown parcels.

The construction of valvae is identical to E. e. zhuravskyi’s one.

ALLOTYPE  –  a female. Body, legs and antennae are like in ♂. The UPS is dark-brown. FWl 21 mm. The UPF band is similar to male’s one, the “seeing” ocelli are between M1―M2, M2―M3. There is a supplementary little rusty-red spot between 2V―3V on the UPH.

The UNS underground is dark-brown. The rusty-red band is on the UNF and similarly colored but a less bright “zone” like in ♂. The “seeing” ocelli are between M1―M2, M2―M3, a blind one between Cu1-Cu2. The UNH outer border is relatively lighter and “whiter” than the background. The antemarginal band is silver-white, it has a distinct inner edge; its protuberance is directed to the base of the wing, its tip almost reaches the central cell; the protuberance is placed above the vein M3. The outer edge of the band is diffused. 5 round rusty-red spots are stretched along the outer edge of the band between M1―M3 and Cu1―Cu2. In the middle of them are “seeing” ocelli. The rusty-red spots between Rs―M1, M1―M2 and M3―Cu1 are small, irregular, without ocelli. There is a dim whitish basal band. The fringe is like in the male.

MATERIALS. Holotype ― ♂, Komi Rep., Ust’-Vymski reg., Mikun’ mt., a medow, plain part of the middle taiga, ~ 62° N, 25-27.07.1999. Alloptype ― ♀, ibidem, 25-27.07.1999. Paratype ― 1♂, 3♀ ― ibidem, 25-27.07.1999; 3♂, 1♀ ― W. Pritiman’ye, Arkhangek’sk distr., Leshukonskoe v., ~ 64° N., VII.1980 (A. Bobretsov).

DISTRIBUTION: taiga in the NE Europe (and tundra ― the ecological f. arctica Poppius, 1906).

BIOLOGY: According to A. G. Tatarinov, it is “a sp. with a biennial generation. The imagines appear in the environs of Ukhta (middle taiga) only in the even years. Nevertheless, K. F. Sedykh affirms that the butterfies still appear here in the odd years, but their number is scant and they fly earlier. The period of flight is late June ― early August. The butterflies feed nectar of buttercup, valerian, …………., thistle, ………………., …………….. Food-plants are various wild cereals.” [Tatarinov, Dolgin, 1999:110].

ETYMOLOGY: the ssp. is named in according to the place of the inhabit.


Erebia euryaloides flaveoides Korshunov et Tatarinov, 1996, stat. n. (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12).

The original description of the ssp. [Korshunov, 1996, 1998]; the supplementary features are given between the square brackets.

“flaveoides Korshunov et Tatarinov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE ― a female. FWl 21 mm. There are two small brown spots on the brown-yellowish band on the UNH: the upper one is opposite the hollow in the band before the top of the central cell, the lower one is between the veins Cu. [The paratypes may have one of these spots or nothing but the tracks (shades)].

ALLOPTYPE ― a male. FWl 20 mm. The UNH band is reduced, a white small spot is seen where the female has a hollow, and sparse white scales above and below it. [The UPF has a dark rusty-red band between R5―2V, its inner border is evenly narrowing downwards. The outer band edge is flat. The UPH band is placed between M1―M3, two roundish spots are between M3―Cu1 and Cu1―Cu2, a hardly seen spot of the same color is between Cu2―2V. 2 blind dots (ocelli) are only between M1―M2 and M2―M3. The valvae have a shortened tip. The teeth tips on the dorsal side form a straight line, like in ssp. zhuravskyi and taiga].]

[DISTRIBUTION. The Polar, Subpolar and North Urals (as far as 62° N)].

[BIOLOGY. According to A. G. Tatarinov, “the imagines occur every year in the Urals” [Tatarinov, Dolgin, 1999:110].

MATERIALS. Holotype ― ♀, 15.07.1995, Subpolar Ural, midstream of M. Patok rr. Allotype ― ♀, 16.07, ibidem. Paratypes ― 9 ♀♀, 15-17.07, ibid.; [3♂, nat. p. “Yugad-Va”, Kozhim r., ~ 66° N, grassy larch forests, 10-12.07.2000].

NOTE. E. e. taiga and E. e. zhuravskyi differ groundly in the structure of the UPF band: the band of the latter sp. has its own distinct narrowing downwards to the ventral edge of wings; the same narrowing in E. taiga is less noticeable.. E. e. flaveoides has a slightly smaller dimensions; the coloring of the female antemarginal band is yellow in flaveoides, silver-white (silver-green) in zhuravskyi and taiga.

In according to A. G. Tatarinov “small butterflies occur in the Polar Urals and in the eastern part of the Bol’shezemel’skaya Tundra; ocelli are absent frequently on their wings, the postdiscal band on the female UNH can be yellow as well as white. The taxonomical situation of the form arctica Pop. remains unclear; it was described from the Kanin Pen. and is characterized by small size, reduced “ocelli” and a white band in females… The butterflies from the Transpolar Ural and the eastern part of the Bol’shezemel’skaya Tundra are closest to this form. It is not excluded that they must be considered as a separate ssp.” [Tatarinov, Dolgin, 1990:110]. But according to the geographical distribution of the dwarf form whose females have a silver-white or yellow UNH band, we incline to assume them as transpolar ecological forms of the ssp. E. euryaloides taiga and E. euryaloides flaveoides, respectively. The analogous ecological dwarf forms with similar features are found in other butterflies of the euryale-group, e. g. in the forms like Erebia euryale syrmia f. nana from the High Carpathians [Warren, 1936].

Our materials present only “tiny copies” of E. euryaloides flaveoides. FWl is 17-18 mm. The learned Ural specimens, in accordance to Poppius’ original description of arctica from Kanin, the rusty-red spots are more or less reduced and have not ocelli. The UNH white pattern along thre outer edge of the row of small rusty-red spots is weakly distinct in males, only sometimes occur butterflies with a well-developed white band (ab. boreomontanum Sedykh, 1977). The valva tip has an average length, the dorsal part is like in flaveoides, taiga and zhuravskyi. Two front spots on the UNF in ♀♀ bear white ocelli surrounded with black rings. A wide silver-white (or ochre-yellow) band is well distinct in the outer zone of the UNH, its inner edge is limited by a distinct roundish-broken line of the adjacent dark stripe which is covered with white scales in the basal zone of the wing. The females with a yellow band (parallel with white band females) are noticed only in the mountains (according to Tatarinov, only white-band ♀♀ inhabit the Bol’shezemel’skaya Tundra).

MATERIALS. 2 ♂♂ ― 23.07.1960, forest-tundra, near Labytnangi t., 1♂ 1♀ ― 07.1963, Pol’arny Ural st., railroad Vorkuta―Labytnangi, 1♂ ― 17.06.1966, Labytnangi (K. Sedykh), 2 ♂♂ ― 16, 26.07.1972, 107th -109th km of Seida―Labytnangi railr. (V. Makhat), 2♂♂ ― 18 and 27.07.1972, Polar Ural, M. Paypudin r. valley (V. Makhat).


Erebia iremelica Korshunov, 1995, stat. n.


HOLOTYPE ― ♂. Antennae and legs are dark-brown from above, gray-whitish from below, body black. Fringe gray-whitish with interspersed with black and white of the background.

FWl 20 mm. The UPS are dark-brown with rusty-red postdiscal rows of spots between veins. The UPH 5 spots band betwen R5―Cu2, the inner sides of the spots 1―3 are stretched towards the base, the 1st spot is from the outside shorter then the 2nd and 3rd ones. The 4th spot between M3―Cu1 is noticeable shorter and narrower than the 5th. The black dots are in the dots 2, 3 and 5. The UPH band consists of 5 spots and is stretched between Rs―Cu2; the sots 1 and 4 are noticeably shorter than the rest, there is a the black dot only in the 5th spot. The UNS background is dark red-brown. The UNF band is continuous, narrowed from the upper side between the veins R5―M1 and A―Cu2 and from the basal side between M3 and Cu3. The inner side of the band is diffused between M3―Cu2. The lower half of the central cell and a part of the wing from the cell as far as the band (between M3 and Cu2) is rusty-colored. There are black dots on the band between M1―M2, M2―M3, Cu1―Cu2 and separate small rusty-red spots between M1―Cu2 in the outer zone of the UNH. The spots between M1―M2 and Cu1―Cu2 are roundish and bear “seeing” ocelli. There are ochre-colored slightly rimmed by rusty-red streaksbetween the veins M1―M2 and M3―Cu1. A short silver-white streak is over the vein M3 between a harly seen silver-white band and the central cell.

The valva top is narrow, stretched, having a mace-shaped thickening on the top, covered with small teeth. The apical edge is sloped, covered whith chaoticly posited average teeth. The dorsal edge is bow-shaped, it is narrowing towards the back part; the dorsal teeth are large, their length is various. The valvae are covered with thick hair of average length, the longest hair is in the dorsal part and on the top where a “hair-brush” is formed.

The male variability among the paratypes concerns the following features: a) presence/absence of ocelli on the UPS. A male has UPH ocelli in the spots 3―5, they are “seeing” in the spots 3―5. Another specimen has a “seeiing” ocellus in the 2nd spot on the UPF, while a hardly seen blind one is in the 3rd spot on UPH; 2 specimens have ocelli only in the 2nd and 3rd spots on the FW, etc.; b) the brightness of the silver-white band on th UNH. Some butterflies have bands more distinct than the holotype, another have a hardly seen band; c) shape of the dorsal edge of valvae. The dorsal edge always has a typical feature (differing iremelica from euryaloides) ― a bow-shaped protubrance, similar to E. jeniseiensis’s one (differing from the later by chaotic disposition of teeth and diversity of teeth shape). Many specimens have a “regular” bow-shaped swelling, some butterflies have several protuberances on the curved dorsal edge.

ALLOTYPE ― ♀. UPS dark-brown. The band consists of separate rusty-red spots separated by veins. FWl 22 mm. The UPF band is between R2―Cu2. The 2nd, 3rd and 5th spots contain ocelli (a blind ocellus between Cu1―Cu2). The 1st and 4th spots are narrower and shorter than the rest. The UPH band has 4 spots without ocelli between M1―Cu2. The 1st and 3rd spots are narrower and shorter as the 2nd and 4th. The inner edges of the 1st and 2nd spots are slightly stretched towards the base.

The UNF is rusty-red, the costal border up to the vein K5 is silver-grayish (exscept its submarginal part), the coloring is the most intensive above the band. tHE The submarginal zone is thickly dusted with silvery scales between the costal edge and M3. The band is rusty-red, lighter than the background, noticeably narrowed between M3―Cu1. It bears 3 ocelli (between M1―M2, M2―M3 and Cu1―Cu2), the Cu1―Cu2 ocellus is blind. The UNH background is red-brownish, dusted with silver-white scales. The outer zone band is silver-white, a peg-shaped projection lies over M3, its tips almost touches the central cell. There are tracks of red-brownish spots between M2―M3 and Cu1―Cu2 and a a silver-white basal band.

The wing fringe is white with dark-brown uncrements.

The females with silver-white or yellowish antemarginal UNH band are fixed between the paratypes.

A male have UPH ocelli in the spots 3―5, the ocelli in the 3th and 5th spots are “seeing”. Another male has a “seeing” ocellus on the 2nd spot on the UPF, while the UPH have hardly seen traces of blind ocelli in the 3rd spot; two ♂♂ have ocelli only in the 2nd and 3rd spots on the UPF, etc. (it is an important distinctive feature of E. iremelica, because as a rule all the ssp. of E. euryaloides have only two blind ocelli between the veins M1―M3 on the UPF in males).

MATERIALS. Holotype ― ♂, 26.06.95, Tschelyabinsk distr., Kusikhinsky reg., nat. park “Zyrat-Kul’” (V. K. Zinchenko). Allotype ― ♀, 26.06.95, ibid.. Paratype: 9♂, 26.06.95, ibid.; 2♂, Katav-Ivanovsk, 16.07.67 (Sablin); 1♂, 14.07.63, 2♂, 12.07.65, 1♂, 3.07.65, 1♀, 12.07.65, ibidem (Sablin); 1 ♀ ― Chelyabinsk disr., Iremel’, meadows on the way towards Tyulyuk, Karachayka r., 15.07.1966 (E. Yu. Zakharova); 1♀, 5♂ ―Chelyabinsk distr., Iremel’, 13.07.1996; 7♂ ― Sverdlovsk distr., Visimski st. preserve, 20-22.07.1999 (V.M.Yudin); 2♂ ― the Urals, env. of Kytlym, spruce-fir-cedar forest, 18.07.74; 1♂, Ural, Kos’vinski Kamen’ mt., mountain forest zone, 11.07.74 (Yu. N. Baranchikov).

NOTE. According to Yu. N. Baranchikov [Baranchikov, 1980: 218], the butterflies were gathered in the summer 1974 “from 6 until 25 July mainly on the slopes of the Kos’vinski Kamen’ Mt. and in taiga in the environs of Kytlym”. Thus, both sp. were caught in (E. iremelica č E. euryaloides zhuravskyi)common in the env. of Katav-Ivanovsk (S. Ural) and Kytlym (boundary between the M. and N. Urals). A typical E iremelica (labelled “Ural”) is shown by B. Warren [Warren, 1936, pl. 62, fig. 629, 635]; the genitalia of this male see ibid., pl. 25, fig. 249.

DISTRIBUTION. Mountains of the M. and S. Urals.

Some peculiar male specimens were found out among numerous buttreflies of euryale-group caught by A. S. Nikolaev in July 1995 in SE part of the Ukranian Carpathians, along the NE slop of Svidovec Mt. Range, a southern spur of the Gorgan Mts., in the “polinonas” Dragobrat (NE slope of the Blyznyca Mt.) and Shasa (between the Ungareasca and Tîmpa Mts.) and along the road between them, on the height 1300―1600 m. The main part of butterflies from the Svidovec Range. belong to Erebia euryale Esp., asssumingly to its nominotypical ssp. (although there are some grounds to attribute them to a separate E. Carpathian ssp.). The mentioned “peculiar” males have distinctive outer (pattern) and anatomical (valva shape) features, which show their special status, in our opinion. Outer features of a caught female can be proposed as an allotype to the assumed new taxon. The distinctive features and the common fly togeter with E. euryale make possible the giving them a status of a bona sp.


Erebia polonina Nikolaev, sp. n.


HOLOTYPE. A male. FWl 21 mm. Body black from above, dark-brown  from below, legs gray-brownish. Antennae dark-brown from above, dirty-white from below. The wing fringe has alternating dark-brown and white spots, dark-brown under Cu2 on the FW and 2V on the HW with white spots opposite to red spots of the band. The UPS are dark-brown. The postdiscal band consists of separate rusty-red spots, 7 spots between the veins R5―2V on the UPF, 5 spots between Rs―Cu2 on the UPH. The spots between M1―M2, M2―M3 and Cu1―Cu2 on the UPF are oblong with blind spots (dots). Two vertically posited dots are betwen Cu2―2V. The spot between M3―Cu1 is shorter than the previous and the following, it has th shape of a square put on the corner. A narrow spot without an acellus is between R5―M1. Hindwings: the first 3 spots are oblong, without ocelli. The spot betwen M3―Cu1 is narrow, of an irregular oval-rombical shaped. The spot between Cu1―Cu2 is roundish, with a cblind ocellus. The background of UNF is dark-brown, the lower half of the central cell and the space between M3―Cu2 from the postdiscal band as far as the base are rusty-red. The band is continuous, rusty-red, lighter at the costal edge, narrowed from within and from the outside between M3―Cu1 and Cu2―2V. The background of the UNH is red-brownish. The postdiscal band is continuous, gray-brownish, dull, dusted with sparse goldish scales. There is a white triangular streak on the innerside of the band above Cu2, whose tip reaches a half way from the band as far as the central cell. The basal band is weakly distinct (descernible during turning the butterfly relative to the souce of light). The blind ocelli are on the band between M1―M2, M2―M3, Cu2―Cu3 (FW) and between M2―M3 and Cu1―Cu2 (HW). The dorsal edge of valvae is bow-shaped, it is covered with irregularly posited teeth of an average size, the tips of teeth don’t form a straight line.

? ALLOTYPE. A female. FWl 21 mm. Body, antennae, legs and fringe like in the ♂. The UPS is dark-brown. A continuous rusty-red band is between R5―Cu2, it is cut through by thin veins, two vertically posited dark-red spots are between Cu2―2V. The ocelli are inside of red spots between M1―M2, M2―M3 (“seeing”), Cu1―Cu2 (blind). The UPH band consists of separate dark-red spots between Rs―Cu2. The spot between M3―Cu1 has an irregular shape, without an ocellus; the spot between Cu1―Cu2 is roundish, a little larger than the previous, bearing a blind ocellus. The UNF is like male’s one; the light rusty-red postdiscal band is narrowed from within between M3―Cu1. A whitish dusting is seen over the band on the costal border. The inner border is gray-brownish. The UNH is red-brownish, dusted with sparse goldish scales. The postdiscal band consists from sparse silver-withe scales on the outer edge, the inner edge is bright silver-white, it forms peg-shaped protuberances, their tips are directed towards the base. The ocelli on the band are betwen M1―M2, M2―M3 (“seeing”), Cu1―Cu2 (blind) (FW); between M2―M3, Cu1―Cu2 (“seeing”), M3―Cu1 (blind). The basal band is weakly developed, silver-white along the outer edge.

MATERIALS. Holotype ― ♂, Ukr. Carpathians, Svidovec mt. rng., pol. Dragobrat, 1300 m, 20.07.95 (A. S. Nikolaev). ? Allotype ― ♀, ibid., pol. Shasa, 22.07.95 (idem). Paratypes ― 5♂, Ukr. Carpathians, Svidovec rng., pol. Dragobrat, 1300 m, 20.07.95 (A. S. Nikolaev); 5♂♂, ibid., the road between pol. Dragobrat and Shasa, 1600 m., 21.07.95 (idem); 4♂♂, ibid., pol. Shasa, 1400 m, 22.07.95 (idem); 1♂, Gorgany mts., v. Bystrica, a tall-grassed water-meadow, 1000 m, 11.07.67 (I. Kozakevich).

ETYMOLOGY: The sp. is named aftre the cardinal dwelling place, the E. Carpathian gently sloped mountains (“poloninas”).

SYSTEMATICAL NOTES. The main differences of E. polonina from the E. Carpathian euryale consist in the shape of spots forming the postdiscal band (see the description of the holotype): there is no spot reduction in euryale (resp. a sizable narrowing of bands) between M3―Cu1; if it occurs in aberrations, the spot between Cu1―Cu2 is amaller than the spot between M3―Cu1, or the firts is equal to the second. Apart of it, the inner edge of spots between M3―Cu1 in euryale with a normal band (not reduced and not diffused, as in some aberrative specimens) has a form of a straight line or a hollow (this edge is curved outwards, roundish or triangular). The dorsal edge of valvae of euryale is covered with large, average and small teeth, besides the tips of large teeth form a straight line, while polonina always has a dow-shaped protuberance, this “bow” can be divided in two by a little hollow.

Formerly polonina was known only from Svidovec (a southern spur of Gorgan). Later in the Zoological museum of IESA SD RAS a similar male was found; it was caught in Bystrica (Nadvornyanski reg., Ivano-Frankovsk distr., leg. I. Kozakevich) placed right northwards from Svidovec on the NE slope of Gorgan. Among our materials from another Carpathan localities (N slopes: Turovka, Rozhnyatovski reg., Iv.-Frank. distr., Semakovo/Konyatin, Putil’ski reg., Chernovcy distr.; S slopes: Lugi, Koz’meshchek, Rakhovski reg., Sinevir/Sinevirskaya Polyana, Mezhgorski reg, Zakarpatskaya distr.) Erebia euryale is the unique representant of the group in question.

It is noticeable the indication to E. euryale adyte supposedly inhabiting the E. Carpathian massive Czarnohora, the SE spur of the Gorgan Mountains [Krzywicki, 1966:19]. It seems that some specimens of E. polonina were interpreted as adyte.

The butterflies of the euryale-group were hitherto considering as pertaining to an indivisible sp. Erebia euryale (Esper, 1805), whose several taxons were were joined with Erebia ligea (Linnaeus, 1758). These facts are cited in B. Warren’s monograph [Warren, 1936], where all the taxa were presented as ssp. (4), forms (20) and aberrations (12) namely of E. euryale. This system was defined more exactly during the time, in particular Warren’s «forms» obtained the status of ssp., especially for the Alpine [Roos & Arnscheid, 1976; Arnscheid & Roos, 1977] and Uralian areas [Korshunov 2000]. The information about the eastern part of euryale’s area, wich was presented weaker by Warren due to the absence of relevant materials, can be introduced only now as a result of thorough investigation of specimens after their intensive capture by S. L. and A. S. Nikolaevs in the Ukranian Carpathians, by M. P. Sablin, A. G. Tatarinov and the other colleagues in the Uralian region.

The analysis of wing patterns, genital apparati, localities and way of life of imago permits to make conclusions as follows.

The taxa is divided in two complexes ― euryale proper and adyte.

Now we present this information as a whole.

The contemporaneous classificatgion of the «ssp.» of E. euryale can be presented as it follows (in the given list the infraspecific Warren’s «forms» having separate areas, are treated as ssp.; Warren’s ssp. acquire a range of infraspecifical groups). This list formally contains ssp. not cited by Warren (independently from their status in relevant publications).

Formal similarities exist among Erebiae of the groups 1―3, on the one hand (euryale-complex), and Erebiae of the groups 4―6, on the other hand (adyte-complex). Namely, the Erebiae of the adyte-complex have a narrowed outer edge of the band on the FW resp. reduced spots between M3―Cu1, on the one hand, and a bow-shaped dorsum of valvae, on the other hand. The butterflies of the euryale-complex can have sporadically the mentioned first feature (in the groups ocellaris, segregata, antevortes, in aberrative forms of flaveoides, isarica č syrmia), but the second (more important) feature is permanently absent: all known to us males of the euryale-complex have only the “straight” dorsum (see tabl….. , fig……    ). The fact is important that the butterflies of the groups 1―3 (“euryale”) and 4―6 (“adyte”) can coexist (namely adyte and isarica, adyte and segregata; euryale and polonina; iremelica and zhuravskyi), whereas among the same complex there are no geographical “meetings” or common fly of butterflies (the coexistence of euryale, isarica and syrmia in the E. Carpathians, assumed by Warren [Warren, 1936], has no factual confirmation).

The status of a sp. («opposite» to ocellaris) was already proposed for adyte [Roos & Arnscheid, 1976; Arnscheid & Roos, 1977] ― to be certain, it was said that these taxa are “semi-sp.” in Lorkovic’s terms. Indeed the “semi-sp.”, i. e. close sp. distributed in adjacent, almost or fully separate areas (similar to the sp. Erebia tyndarus, E. nivalis and E. calcaria within the tyndarus-group), are not “transitional” taxa between sp. and ssp., but the true sp. All the more, the shown above intersection of areas of the “ssp.” of euryale indicates their specific status. Adyte is also “opposed” to isarica, if we don’t consider segregata as a “transitional form” (Mischform) from adyte to isarica, like it is done in [Arnscheid & Roos, 1977], but as a peculiar ssp. outwardly similar to ocellaris; its shape of valvae is not known to us.

The classification of taxa among the complexes is more complicated. Tramelana, isarica, euryale, syrmia č ocellaris have adjacent (not intersected) areas within the euryale-complex (the groups 1―3). Antevortes has a separate, but not very remote area. The taxa of the 4th group inhabit a quite separate area (NE Europe, The Urals) and have a number of specific common features. There are two possibilities: to assume all the taxa of the fourth group as ssp. of euryale, or as ssp. of a separate sp. euryaloides, which forms together with euryale a natural “complex” (“group of sp.”); the same refers to antevortes: Erebia (euryale) euryale Esp. (with ssp. euryale, isarica, tramelana, syrmia; segregata, ocellaris), Erebia (euryale) antevortes Vrty. (with ssp. antevortes, cantabricola, pyraenaeicola) and Erebia (euryale) euryaloides Tgstr. (with ssp. euryaloides, taiga, flaveoides, zhuravskyi). The second desision is supported by the fact of presence in butterflies of euryaloides-group of common features not peculiar to another euryales (in particular, the preservation of only 2 blind ocelli on FW of males). The same reason permits us to suggest the separate status of E. (euryale) antevortes.

The same scheme works in the case of the adyte-complex (the groups 4―6): Erebia (adyte) adyte Hbn. (ń ļīäāčäąģč etobyma č brutiorum); Erebia (adyte) polonina Nikolaev; Erebia (adyte) iremelica Korshunov.

We show this information as a whole:


1) euryale-group

ssp. tramelana Reverdin, 1918 ― Jura

ssp. isarica Heyne, 1895 ― Savoy, Bernese Alps, the northern part of the C. Alps, E. Alps, Julian Alps, Karawanken

ssp. tatrica Strand, 1915 ― W. Carpathians

ssp. euryale (Esper, 1805) ― Sudets, Bieskids, NW Eastern Carpathians

ssp. syrmia Fruhstorfer, 1909 ― Balkans,  Transilvania, S. Carpathians, southern part of the E. Carpathians

ssp. ocellaris Staudinger, 1861 ― southern part of the E. Alps (the centre of the area ― Dolomites)

ssp. segregata Reverdin, 1918 ― Gurnigel, Moleson, Vaud, Berner Oberland

2) antevortes-group

ssp. antevortes Verity, 1927High Pyrenees

ssp. cantabricola Verity, 1927 ― Cantabrian Mountains

ssp. pyraenaeicola Goltz, 1930 ― E. Pyrenees

3) euryaloides-group

ssp. euryaloides Tengström, 1869 ― Finland, Karelia (?)

ssp. flaveoides Korshunov et Tatarinov, 1996 ― Polar, Subpolar and Northeern Urals (as far as 62° N southwards)

ssp. taiga Nikolaev et Korshunov, ssp. n. ― taiga of the NE Europe; Malozemel’skaya, Bol’shezemel’skaya tundra, Kanin pen. ― the ecological f. arctica Poppius, 1906

ssp. zhuravskyi Nikolaev et Korshunov, ssp. n. ― Middle and Southern Ural  (as far as 62° N northwards).


4) adyte-group

ssp. adyte (Hübner, 1818-1822) ― the southern part of the W. and C. Alps

ssp. etobyma Fruhstorfer, 1909 (? = phoreta Fruhstorfer, 1918) ― Maritime Alps

ssp. brutiorum Turati, 1911 ― Apennines

5) polonina-group

ssp. polonina Nikolaev, sp. n. ― E. Carpathians (Gorgan Range only?)

6) iremelica-group

ssp. iremelica Korshunov, 1995 ― M. and S. Urals.

It is noteworthy, that the complexes euryale and adyte differ not only by morphological but also by biological characteristics. The sp. of the complex adyte are butterflies of high-mountains, they fly on the heights 1000―1700 m in all habitats (they sink or climb very rarely and apparently don’t have “dwarf forms”); they prefer the lower borders of conifer-forests. In contrast the butterflies of the complex euryale tyend to a relative eurybiosity in limits of mountain-taiga zone. For instance, they occur in the Carpathians in the heights from 500 as far as 2000m, inhabit also open grassy meadows; in the NE Europe they inhabit the mountain slopes as well as the taiga an tundra. The transpolar and alpine euryales occur in “dwarf form”. Meeting with E. ligea, E. euryale can form hybrides with the former in the Carpathias (Bowtsarya Mt. Range, ca. 650 m., S. Nikolaev’s collection): a male has a typical ligeas’s valva and euryale’s the right one (see the drawing). Analogous facts noticed in the Urals  A. G. Tatarinov (personal communication).


Erebia ajanensis Ménétriés, 1857 (fig. 1, 2)


The taxon ajanensis was described on the basis of a female. The ssp. arsenjevi Kurentzov replaces the ssp. ajanensis, 1950 in the Sikhote-Alin Mt. Range, whose butterflies usually have an incomplete albescent band and all features of the group vilderi.

The butterflies from the northern Priokhotye are a little different. They were described as Erebia kosterini sp. n. It was later discovered that kosterini is a ssp. whose imago tends to have somewhat oblong ocelli on the UNH together with a clear albescent band through the entire wing. They also differ in the details of the genital apparatus, as is evident in the drawings

The translation of the original description:

«Erebia kosterini P.Gorbunov, Korshunov, Dubatolov, sp. n.

TYPE LOCALITY: The Khindzha River on the Koni Peninsula (the Magadan Region)

BIOTOPES: valley meadow plots between the thickets of the bush alder and the dwarf pine.

FLIGHT PERIOD OF IMAGINES: observed in the second half of July.

HOLOTYPE: a male: FWl.: 21.5 mm. The UPS is brown with a wide (3-4 mm) ochre-fulvous band in the postdiscal area, which contains: a black dot at the apex between the veins R5 and M1, a double lack spot between M1 and M3, the next [from the apex] intervein plate contains a dot, the next one contains a round black spot. No adroconial brand is seen. On the UPH there are four round black spots on an ochre fulvous band going from the fore margin to the vein Cu2. The third spot (counting from the fore margin) is noticeaby shifted outside. The underside is analogously colored but the round color is darker to some extent, the band on the FW is ochre-yellow, while the black dot at the apex is absent; on the HW the spots are smaller and reside not on the band but in narrow ochre rings, inside of which there is a white band split into fragments. The fringe is chequered. In the genital apparatus the valva is narrow (the ratio of its maximal width to the length being 1:5), slightly and gradually tapering to the apex; a half of its dorsal edge bears teeth of various size (see Appendix). In a similar sp. E. ligea the valva is sharply (two- or three-fold) narrowed at the apex forming a finger-like projection. A structure of the male genitalia similar with that of E. kosterini is found in an American sp. E. vilderi Elwes, 1898 [an error in the original description, must be vidleri – Yu. K], well differing by the absence of postdiscal black ocelli on the HWs.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl.: 20 mm. The wings are noticeably narrower than in the holotype. The coloration and pattern are similar to those of the holotype, differing in the following: on the UPF the black dot at the apex is absent, on the UPH the black spots are smaller and there is only three of them (that colsest to the fore margin is wanting); the double spot on the UPF, the same double spot and the spot between Cu1 and Cu2 [on the UNF – these words were accidentally dropped in the printed version – Yu. K.] , and three of the four spots on the UNH have white nuclei. On the UNH the white stripe inside of the row of ocelli is brighter and more clear-cut than in the holotype.

MATERIALS: Holotype: ♂  –  20.07.1989, the Magadan Region, the Koni Peninsula, the lower reaches of the Khindzha River, a herbaceous meadow on the lower terrace (O.E.Kosterin). Allotype: ♀  –  20-24.07.1989, the same locality. Paratypes: 2 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀  –  20.07.1989, the same locality and date. The sp. is named by the surname of Oleg Engel’sovich Kosterin, a participant on numerous expeditions in Siberia and the Far East, who collected the type series of butterflies of the sp.

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 123.

NOTE: A more detailed description of the habitat of these butterflies (referred to as Erebia ligea [Linnaeus, 1758] group) on the Koni Peninsula can be found in [Kosterin, 1993]. After the first description the butterflies of this sp. were collected also at the Magadan City and the settlement Karamken in the Magadan Region [Korshunov, 1996].

NOTE. The entire puzzle began with an incorrect definition by P. Gorbunov of the butterflies in the collection of V. V. Baglikov from the Southern Sikhote-Alin; the author was on a hurry to publish a text regarding the supposed capture of kosterini in a new site. I learned about this text incidentally only much later. Nonetheless, I immediately doubted the existence of the special population of this form in the Southern Sikhote-Alin, because I was previously familiar with the details of the description of the ssp. arsenjevi and realized that its description unfortunately was not taken into account during the definition of kosterini. It was also clear that arsenjevi was not a ssp. of ligea, but rather an entirely different butterfly. This conclusion was then reported to V. Dubatolov. The further details on kosterini and ligea became clear through our collective efforts. A. L’vovsky helped us especially having sent the necessary data about the specimens located in ZIN. A separate publication (in Trans.lepid. Soc. Japan, v.49, 1998) was devoted to a description of the lectotypes both of ajanensis and eumonia. The separate sp. ąjanensis was first cited in [Elwes, 1881], then in [Graeser, 1888], a fact which every «first-discoverer» should bear in mind.


Erebia aethiops (Esper, 1777)


Many aberrations of this sp. are known. In particular, the large form called uralensis Goltz, 1930, referred later to the Alpine ssp. sapaudia Fruhstorfer, 1917, has been designated later marked as an «Uralian» one, which seems entirely not justified. It is impossible to call the Uralian butterflies by this name, since there is already such a taxon of Å. medusa. In this connection we have introduced for the Uralian specimens another name, goltzi Korshunov, 1998. It differs from the eastern butterflies by a darker background and by a redish band on the FW with a less noticeable «tie». The UNH is almost monochrome in males; the dusting in females is rather yellowish. Similar butterflies were earlier unsuccessfully called altaica Goltz, 1930 (the name is invalid because of the homonymy). It was replaced by us through transsibirica Korshunov, 1998. O. Staudinger described a male with a wing span of 40 mm and a cosiderable reduction of the pattern similar to aethiopella Staudinger, 1897Źåntei» is located in the Malkhanski Mt. Range in the Chikoi R. basin  –  Yu.K.), which was corrected later as ab. ignota Higgins, 1930 because of the homonymy. Basically, small butterflies in the populations in the S. Siberia are not rare, but it was impossible for us to collect specimens identical to ignota.


Erebia rossi Curtis in Ross, 1834


The ssp. åro Bremer, 1861 occurs in the much of the S. Siberia (TS  –  Jablonovy Mt. Range). The butterflies have an erubescent-chestnut-brown ground color of the UNF (the Altaian specimens have no original features, despite the claim of [P. Gorbunov, p. 125]!). The forms erda Sheljuzhko, 1924 in the E. Sayan, dzhelinde Sheljuzhko, 1924 in the Dzhalindinski Goltsy in the Jankanski Mt. Range (mountains of the Upper Priamurye) have also been described. Paul Ehrlich [Ehrlich, 1952: 75-88] considers all these titles as synonyms of ero in his comprehensive paper about the occurrence and the ssp. of rossi. The butterflies found in the tundra and forest tundra of North Asia and in the mountain communities of Yakutia and Chukotka are distinct. We have described them as the ssp. subarctica.


Erebia rossi subarctica Korshunov, 1996 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).

Translation of the original description:

«...The butterflies from the zonal tundras and forest-tundras of N. Asia and from mountains of Yakutia and Chukotka are different. They differ first of all by the absence of a reddish-chestnut-brown color on the UNF in a majority of specimens. Only some females have a brand of this color and few males have a group of such scales at the ocelli. We describe them as Erebia rossi subarctica Korshunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 24 mm. The UPS is brown, there is a double fulvous spot at the FW apex, containing two black dots, and a a hardly noticeable fulvous spot without a dot at the Cu veins. The UPH has no dots. On the UNF there is a double fulvous spot with two black dots centered with white ocelli, a tiny fulvous speck and a small fulvous spot, with a white-centered black dot, between the branches of the vein Cu. On the UNH there is an obscure band, with a white dot on its margin at the cell apex, and a somewhat ligher band in the outer field. There is a «flash» of reddish scales at the spots, noticeable only if to place the butterfly at different angles to the light.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl. 25 mm. The UPS is as in males, but the small spot at the Cu is missing. The UPF has only two black dots with white pupils in a common fulvous round spot at the apex. The UNH has the same bands as the male, the outer margin of the outer one bearing two very small white spots.

Among the paratypes about a half of specimens have 2-3 spots in addition to the double apical one on the FW and 2-4 spots on the HW. On the UNH there may be fore white dots. The imagines from the Maymecha River basin and from the more northern Novaya River, on the Putorana Plateau, are peculiar: they are smaller, FWl. being 19-21 mm, and have only the apical spots (the only female of 8 specimens has spots also on the UPH), this population deserves further studies.

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♂  –  15.07.1968, the left bank of the Tanlovaya River, a tributary of the Schuchya River, S Yamal (Korshunov). The allotype: ♀ – 14.07.1968, a tundra between the Tarseda River and the Schuchya River left bank, S Yamal, Korshunov). Paratypes: 10 ♂♂ 7 ♀♀ – 14- 30.07.1968, the Schuchya River basin (Yu. Korshunov); 2 ♂♂ – 28-29.06.1969, the Omolon River valley (N. Gomoyunova); 2 ♂♂ – 8.07.1976, the Yenisei River lower reaches, Chopko (Chernenko); 2 ♂♂- 07.1981, Taymyr, Ary-Mas, Novaya (R. Polovinkina); 1 ♂ 5 ♀♀ – 28.07-8.08.1982, Putoran, Maymecha (I.S. Zakharzhevsky); 1 ♂ – 22.06.1984, the SutarKhayata mountain range (L. Popova); 14 ♂♂ 1 ♀ – 19.06- 14.07.1985, the Suntar-Khayata mountain range, the Khandyga River headwaters (V. Dubatolov); 1 ♂ – 18.06.1989, Yakutia, the Kele River headwaters, a Carex/Eriophorum tussocks (L. Popova); 2 ♂♂ – 12-17.07.1993, the Chita Region,, 35 km SSE of Chara, Naminga (A. Streltsov).»

Origin: Dopolnenie 1, Novosibirsk, 1996, p. 33-34.

NOTE. In the book of the Moscow collectors «Butterflies of Russia», v. 1, 1997 the ssp. subarctica described by us is considered as a synonym of the American ssp. kuskoquima Holland, 1931, which occurs in the Kuskokvim R. basin. The UNF of this ssp. are almost rubescent-chestnut, and the other features different from those butterflies in the table 48, no. 1-3, all of which serves only to confuse the reader.

Our name subarctica is invalid because of the presence of Erebia disa subarctica McDunnough, so we give this ssp. a new name Erebia rossi yamala Korshunov, nom.n.


Erebia semo Grum-Grshimailo, 1899 (= fasciata auct., nec Butler, 1866)


The sp. semo is widespread in Siberia to the north as far as the Chukotski peninsula inclusive. The ssp. avinoffi Holland, 1930 occurs on Wrangel Island; the butterflies have reduced chestnut spots on the UPS of w. The ssp. sachaensis Dubatolov, 1992, stat.n. is found in Suntar-Khayata, Cherski and the Esop Mountain Ranges. The females have brown bands (the first-description writes that the bands are as in semo! ― Yu. K.); the males have barely peceptible bands or one-colored wings. The scales on the whole and the androconial ones in particular are similar to semo, but they are not identical. The same could be said about male genitalia. It is quite possible, that sachaensis is a bona sp.!


Årebia semo sachaensis Dubatolov, 1992 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Translation of the original description:

«Årebia [magdalena] sachaensis Dubatolov, ssp. n.

Materials [in ISEA, Novosibirsk]: holotype – ♂, Yakutia, 180 km ENE of settlement Khandyga, the upper flow of the East Khandyga River, 248-249 km of the road Khandyga-Magadan, the Setarym River right bank, a south-western slope, 1500 m above sea level, at a scree, 28th June 1985 (Dubatolov). Paratypes: 3 ♀♀, the same locality, 1500-1600 m, mountain rocky tundra, 11.07.1985 (Dubatolov); 1♂, the same locality, 28.06.1985  (Barkalov); ♂, the Vostochnaya Khandyga River headwaters, 232 km of the road Khandyga-Magadan, the Baranya Mt., 1500 m above sea level, a crest, 7th July 1985 (Barkalov); a female, 10 km of settlement Kyumyuba, 336.5 km of the road Khandyga-Magadan, 18th July 1985 (Dubatolov); a male, the Verkhoyanskii Mt. Range, the Kele River headwaters, the Gnas River, a left tributary of the Kyunkyunyur River, 8th July 1989 (Vinokurov); a male, the same label without date; a male, the Cherskii Mt. Range, the Burkat Pass between the headwaters of the rivers Myuryule and Inyali, 10yj July 1990 (Savin); a female, the same locality, the Burkat spring, a Myuryule River tributary, 11th July 1990 (Zinchenko).

Male: FWl.: 25-27.5 mm. FW widely rounded at apex, black-brown with a brownish-red diffuse spot on outer area between the veins M3―Cu1, Cu1―Cu2 and below Cu2. This spot may be large, up to 5 mm wide, or much reduced but always present. The UPH are evenly dark-brown. The UNF have a rectangular dark-brownish-red spot on the outer part between the middle of space M3―Cu1 and the fold A. Sometimes basally of this area there is a triangular browinish-red area with an apex directed to wing base, sometimes it is reduced but in this case some brownish-red scales remain in this place.

The HW either evenly black or with a lighter base and a light band, as in E. fasciata semo Gr.-Gr. Androconial scales present on the FW, their shape is as in E. magdalena Strecker.

Female: FWl.: 24-25 mm. FW above blackish-brown with a reddish-fulvous area bordered with middle of cell, vein M2 and fold A. This area is clearly cut through with black veins. The UPH are evenly blackish-brown. UNF are as UPF, the HW are like in E. fasciata semo.

Systematic notes. In the wing coloration the new taxon resembles E. fasciata semo from which it differs with rounded FW, a diffuse fulvous band and also a presence of androconial scales. The Siberian ssp. differs from the Alaskan E. magdalena mckinlyensis Gunder (We have seen the only one picture of a female of this taxon in [Emmel, 1975: 10, fig. 4]) by a smaller size of the fulvous spot on the UPF and darkened veins.

Biology: The butterflies fly on stone screes, rocky slopes, and also on stone mountain tundra on the altitudes of 1500-1600»

Origin: Vestnik zoologii, Kiev, 1992, No. 6, pp. 41-42.

NOTE. The authors of the Moscow collectors Butterflies of Russia, v. 1, 1997 treat semo as if it were an «individual variation», but the basis of this assertion is simply unintelligible. The baseless desire «to demole» this or that taxon is has no basis in fact and serves no purpose.


Erebia ola Korshunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).


Translation of the original description:

«Specimens from the Magadan Region are characterized by a complete vanishing of chestnut-colored spots on the UPS in males and their reduction in females. Below we describe them as a new ssp. The shape of the valva in the male genitalia in sachaensis and ola is very variable, that is illustrated by the drawings of the genitalia of the holotypes (see Appendix). In general, the genitalia of these taxa have no significant differences between each other, as well as from E. semo and E. erinnyn. Erebia [mckinleyensis] ola Korshunov, ssp. n. [this  combination is an invention by Mr. P. Gorbunov!!- Yu.K.].

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 25 mm. The UPS is evenly soot-colored. The underside is of the same color but on the FW, at the cell, there are groups of reddish scales forming a hardly detectable sinking spot. The light scales are scattered over the UNH where no bands are seen. In the genitalia the valva has a rounded apex.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl. 26 mm. The UPS is black with a brown tint. On the FW, at the cell, there are reddis elongate streaks between the veins. On the UNF the corresponding reddish spots are bordered with dark scales. The UNH is not only mottled, as in males, but have also distinct traces of the postdiscal band, the margin of which is most clearly seen in the middle part of the outer field.

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♂  –  7.07.1991, the Magadan Region, the headwaters of the Ola River, the surroundings of the mountain Nukh (1828 m) (V.V.Palekha leg.); the allotype: ♀ – 7.07.1991, the same locality; paratypes: ♂ – 07.1991, the same locality; 2 males 1 ♀ – 13.07.1993, the same locality; ♂  –  6.07.1964, the Omsukchanski mountain range, at the setlement Golimyy, 6th July 1964 (A.V.Tsvetaev).

The attribution of this taxon to E. mckinleyensis as a subcpecies, made by P. Gorbunov in a published version of the book [Korshunov, Gorbunov, 1995], is erroneous. I consider it to be a bona sp. due to the complex of characters concerning the general appearance, pattern, the details of the genitalia structure [Korshunov, 1996]. The new sp. has a certain similarity to E. erinnyn Staudinger, 1894, but this sp. of the E Sayan lacks androconia resembling E. ola, their genitalia structure have substantial differences, in particular, the end of the valva is twice as thick in E. ola, in general the valva is thicker and resembles that in E. mckinleyensis. Well-developed spots in males and, to some extent, in females is another trait differing E. erinnyn from E. ola. I am not satisfied with the original description of the holotype and would suggest a better version [Korshunov, 1996].

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 127; Dopolnenie 1, Novosibirsk, 1996, p. 35.

NOTES REGARDING CLASSIFICATION. The new sp. bears a definite similarity to E. erinnyn Staudinger, 1894, but the sp. from the E. Sajan has no androconia similar to ola’s ones; there are noticeable genital differences, specifically, the extremity of the valvae is nearly twice as wider, the same valvae are wider as a whole and similar to the valvae of E. mckinleyensis (see the drawings). The explicit development of the spots in the males and, to a greater degree, in the females of erinnyn is an additional difference from ola.


Erebia erinnyn Staudinger, 1894 (= sajanensis Korshunov, 1972)


In an American publication [Scott, 1986] erinnyn is equated with the American magdalena and mckinleyensis. We have previously shown that they differ markedly in various details. Here it is necessary to note that these American sp. are trophically connected with Luzula spicata and Carex atrata. The eggs are laid one by one on the stones near the bushes of Luzula. A dark green caterpillar with thick short hair gnaws round the ends of the leaves. The trophic attachments of erinnyn await classification, but it is necessary to remember, that L. spicata and C. atrata grow in the E. Sayan in moss-lichen and petrous tundras. The reader should bear all the above in mind.


Erebia jakuta Dubatolov, 1992 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).


In our book of 1995 jakuta belongs to E. occulta R. et K., 1983. Further comparison of the butterflies, however, in size and pattern, as well as details of genitalia showed that occulta is a separate sp. that occurs only in N. America.

Translation of the original description:

“Erebia anyuica jakuta Dubatolov, ssp. n.

Materials. Holotype, a male, Yakutia, 180 km ENE of settlement Khandyga, 232 km of the road Khandyga-Magadan, the mountain crest, 15th June 1985 (Dubatolov). Paratypes: 7 males, 4 females, the same label, 7.07.1984 (Popova), 15.06- 11.07.1985 (Dubatolov, Barkalov); a female, 248 km of the road Khandyga-Magadan, the Seratym River right bank, a plateau, 1550 m, 28.06.1985 (Dubatolov); 8 males, E Yakutia, 100 km NE of Ust’-Neram the Siyap River, 20-30 km upstream of the mouth, 1-5.07.1990 (Zinchenko, Savin); 4 males, 1 female, 170 km NE Ust’-Nera, the Myuryule, the brook and pass Burkat, 10-11.07.1990 (Zinchenko, Savin)

Male. FWl. 20-24 mm. UPS are dark-brown, the FW along the fore margin with 4 fulvous round spots centered with black dots of variable size. These dots of two fore spots are always stretched transversally cross the wing. The HW wings between veins Cu2 and M3 and in front of M3 with the same spots are centered with round black spots. The UNF pattern is the same as on the UPF but tyhe fulvous spots are fused into a band, between the veins M1 and A. This band widens basally to the large triangular spot, the apex of which is directed towards the wing base. The black dots on this band can disappear. The UNH has a pattern as in E. dabanensis but more reduced. Genitalia are as in a. occulta Roos et Kimmich, 1983, the valvae are without a heel-like projection.

Female. FWl is 21-23 mm. The wing pattern as in male, but black dots are larger, sometimes these FW dots are more than 1 mm in diameter.

Systematic notes. Basing on the male genitalia structure (the valvae without a heel-like projection, well seen in E. dabanensis, and the disposition of the teeth on the valva apex ― they extend noticeably from the dorsal margin towards the outer margin), anyuica Kurentz. and occulfa Roos et Kimmich (= E. phellea Philip et Troubridge) are conspecific. The new ssp., different from a. anyuica, has a well developed pattern, conspicuous even in the melanistic specimens. The butterflies of the American ssp. a. occulta are much smaller than the nominotypical (FWl is 16.1-20.2 mm), the wing pattern is less expresed (the diameter of the spots on the FW is 1.0-1.5 mm, instead of the 1.5-3.5 mm in a new ssp.).”

Origin: Vestnik zoologii, Kiev, 1992, No. 6, p. 44.

In Asia we found out such ssp. of jakuta. E.Sayan  –  the ssp. iltshira Belik, 1996, stat. n. (T.S.  –  Kitojskie Goltzy). These butterflies have black dots on the UNF.


Erebia jakuta iltschira Belik, 1996 (fig. 1, 2)

Original description:

Erebia anyuica iltshira, ssp. n.

Erebia kozhantschikovii {sic} ab. rubescens Warren, 1930, infrasubspecific name; Erebia dabanensis {sic} ab. rubescens Warren, 1936, infrasubspecific name.

Type material. Holotype: male: Russia, Vostochnyy Sayan mountains, khrebet (mountain range) Kitoiskiye Gol’tsy, river Kitoi upper stream, vicinity of the lake ll’chir, 2250 m, 26.VI. 1994. A. G. Belik leg. Paratypes: 42 males, 9 females. same locality as holotype, 26.VI and 30.VI. 1994, A. G. Belik and E, G. Belik leg.


Male (plate I, figs 1-4), average FWl. 22.1 mm (range 21.0 – 24.0 mm). FWl of the holotype 22.5 mm.

UPF: ground color dark brown with a golden fringe. Four submarginal spots between M1 and Cu2;. colored from reddish-brown to ochre-orange, with diffuse outline especially towards the wing base, often forming a band. When separated, these spots look like diffuse oval ocelli with minute black pupils. There is sometimes an additional submarginal spot between Rs―M. The fringe monochrome as in the FW.

UPH: ground color as in the FW. Between M2―Cu2 are three reddish-brown to ochre-orange submarginal spots with slightly diffuse outlines. Now and then there are additional spots between M1―M2 and Cu2―2A. The submarginal spots are sometimes centred with minute black dots. The fringe is concolorous with the wing.

UNF: the ground color is dark-brown. Wide submarginal band is usually reddish-brown to ochre-brown, generally darker than the corresponding spots on the upperside. The space between the submarginal band and the wing base are usually with reddish tinge because of diffuse reddish scales, which are more numerous near the inner margin of the submarginal band and cause a more prominent reddish color to this area. Thus the border between the submarginal band and the darker postdiscal area is often not sharp. Black dots inside the submarginal band corresponding to those on the upperside that centre the submarginal spots, are somewhat larger than on the upperside.

UNH: the ground color is blackish-brown, very dark. Sometimes a submarginal band of a slightly paler color is visible, especially in tn oblique light. Usually three reddish-brown submarginal ocelli between M^-Cu^ contain black pupils of larger size than in upperside submarginal spots. The fringe is concolorous with the wing.

Genitalia (Fig. 1): of similar structure to other sp. of the Erebia dabanensis complex. The shape of valva in Erebia anyuica varies within broad limits (figs 1, 2. 5). being somewhat similar to that of E. kozhantschikovi Sheljuzhko, 1925 (as in fig. 5. though Kurentzov’s figure seems somewhat schematic) or of E. dahanensis Erschoff, 1871 (as in fig. 2). The main characteristic feature of E. anyuica are male genitalia, which differ it from the related sp.: the presence of an additional row of spines on the outer surface of the dorsal side of the valva in its distal half. Thus the valva of E. anyuica has 3 rows of spines, while the valva of both E. dahanensis (fig. 3) and E. kozhantschikovi has 1-2 rows of spines only along the costal edge in the distal half and has no spines on the outer surface of the valva.

It is surprising that Warren [Warren1930; 1936] has overlooked this fact and never recognized his specimen as belonging to a new sp. He considered it only as an aberration. First of E. kozhantschikovi and then of E. dabanensis: though on the valva of his specimen the additional rows of spines are much reduced, they are visible as two short additional rows in the extreme distal part of its outer surface [Warren, 1936: pi. 42, fig. 384].

Female [plate I, figs 5-8: the average fore-wing length 22.5 mm (range 22.0-23.0 mm). UPF: ground color paler than in male, submarginal ochre-brown spots often united into a band 3-5 mm wide. 3-4 black dots inside this band are larger than in male, up to 0.5 mm in diameter.

UPH: as in male, but paler in color. 3 to 5 submarginal reddish-brown or ochre-brown ocelli larger than in male.

UNF: as in male but paler. Submarginal band usually ochre-brown. Area between the inner margin of the band and the base of wing are usually hushed with color, slightly darker than that of band. Submarginal black dots are often centred with white nuclei.

UNH: general pattern as in male, but much more visible. The wing is usually heavily dusted with pearly gray scales that produce a silvery-grayish tint. This dusting shade wing pattern that is often well visible as a dark heavy jagged marginal band and a dark basal-discal area with jagged outer margin. Submarginal ochre ocelli are prominent but not very conspicuous on the silvery-grayish band.»

Origin: Phegea 24(4) (1.XII.1996): 157-159.


In Pribaikalye and Zabaikalye the ssp. sokhondinka Dubatolov et Zintchenko, 1995, stat.n.

Erebia jakuta sokhondinka Dubatolov et Zintchenko, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3)

Translation of the original description:

«Butterflies from the Chita Distr., described below, are much larger than E. o. occulta (FWl. being 19-21 mm) and significantly larger than E. o. jakuta (FWl. 20-24 mm). They well differ from both known ssp. by more developed fulvous marking on the wings, often forming a contiguous band on the FW. There is also a significant difference in the length of the dentate part of the valva. Its ratio to the total length of the valva in E. o. jacuta is 52-67% (with the mean 59,5%), the samlpe size being 24, in new ssp. it is 56-67,4 (with the mean 64%), the sample size being 20. The butterflies from the East Sayan and Pribaikalye are close to the ssp. being described.

Erebia [occulta] sokhondinca Dubatolov et Zinchenko, ssp. n.

Male: FWl. is 23 mm in the holotype, 23-26 mm in paratypes. The UPS is dark-brown, the FW bears 4 large pale-fulvous spots along the outer margin, usually fused into a band. They are centered with black dots elongate lengthwise with respect to the wing. The HW has 3-4 round spots at the outer margin, often centered with black dots. The pattern of the UNF is the same as on the upperside, but the fulvous spots are always fused into a bright band. This band can extend towards the wing base. The UNH as in E. o. jakuta.

Female: FWl. 23.5-26 mm. The pattern is as in males, but the black dots are larger, up to 2 mm in diameter.

MATERIALS: The holotype – ♂, 23.06 1991, the Chita Region, the Sokhondinskii nature reserve, the Verkhnii Bukukun River (Dubatolov). Paratypes: 35 ♂♂ 9 ♀♀, the same locality and the mountain Tsagan-Ula, 19.06 – 6.07 1991 (Dubatolov, Zinchenko and others).»

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 128.

The first fixation of this butterfly in the Baikalski Mt. Range belongs to O. K. Gusev. This unique specimen is represented in fig. 2 without any exact definition [Korshunov, 1970: 189-190]. The specimens from Udokan were described as the ssp. udokanika Streltzov, 1998 [Strel’tzov, 1998: 1-4, figs. 1-3], since they are practically identical to jakuta. The nominotypical ssp. jakuta differs from iltshira and sokhondinca by the more or less roundish erubescent spots and prominent black points. The genitalia of the ssp., as is evident in the tables, are similar, but their difference from occulta is obvious and requires no explanation.


Erebia theano (Tauscher, 1806)


We have described both ssp. tshugunovi and ssp. shoria. The ssp. tshugunovi from Salair differs by brick-red coloration of spots in the UPS, all spots are realatively small, especially on the UNH.


Erebia theano tshugunovi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

The translation of the original description:

«...Below we describe two ssp. from the Salairski Upland and the Kuznetski Alatau Mts. The former is characterized by a brownish color of spots on the UPS. The butterflies from the Kuznetski Alatau, West Sayan and Tuva are characterized by a general reduction of ochre-brown spots not forming contiguous bands.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl.: 18 mm. The UPS is dark-brown; the postdiscal spots and the spot in the cell are brick-red.The underside is the same as the upperside, but with a grayish tint, which is more distinct along the wing margin; the fulvous postdiscal spots on the HW consist of four hardly noticeable dashes. The fringe is white with dark markings.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl.: 20 mm. The UPS as in the male. The gray tint on the underside, especially on the HW, is much more pronounced. The yellowish postdiscal spots on the UNH are smaller than on the FW (where they are fulvous) and smaller than in the male; the basal spots on the HW are small and hardly noticeable, as in the male.

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♂, 21.06.1994, the Novosibirsk Region, the Kiternya river valley, a damp meadow (V.V. Ivonin); the allotype: ♀ ― 20.06.1994, the Novosibirsk region, the Bol’shoy Elbash river valley, a damp meadow (V.V. Ivonin). The paratypes: 11 ♂♂ 8 ♀♀ – 20.06.1994, the same locality; 5 ♂♂ – 21.06.1994, the same locality, ♀♀ – 24.06.1994, the same locality; 5 ♂♂ ― 21.06.1994, the Novosibirsk Region, the village Novoselovo [this is a mistake – should be Novososedovo, ― Yu.K.], a forest opening (V. V. Ivonin); 1 ♂ – 24.06.1949 – the Novokuznetsk city surroundings, the village Torgay (A.E. Shtandel); 2 ♂♂ – the Tomsk region, the village Nizhnie Sokoly, a bogged meadow (G.S. Zolotarenko)

The ssp. is named in honour of Sergey Mikhaylovich Chugunov, a doctor of medicine at the Tomsk University, who in 1891-1920 comipled several annotated lists of Lepidoptera for various regions of Siberia.»

The Kuznetskian ssp. differs by a hardly perceptable spot in the discoidal cell on the UPF and bright ochre-yellow coloration of the band spots.


Erebia theano shoria Korshunov et Ivonin, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3)

Translation of the original description:

«Erebia theano shoria Korshunov et Ivonin, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl.: 19 mm. The UPS is brown with the postdiscal bands composed of ochre-yellow spots and a hardly noticeable spot in the cell. On the UNS all the spots are bright and large, including that in the cell of the FW and the basal spots on the HW; the gray suffusion is well expressed in the basal area. The fringe is grayish, chequered.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl.: 19 mm. The UPS as in the male, the spot in the cell is well expressed; on the UNS all the spots are bright and large; on the HW the basal spots and gray suffusion are well expressed. The specimens of the type series vary in size of the lighter spots, especially of the basal spots on the UNH. The fringe is brownish in some males.

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♂ – 5.07.1969, the Tuzukhsu river valley in the Tom’ river headwaters 1969 (Yu.P. Korshunov). Allotype: ♀ ― 13.07.1992, the Gornaya Shoria mountain area, the Sheregesh settlement environs, the mountain Pustag, 1300 m [above sea level] (V.V. Ivonin). The paratypes: 21 ♂♂ – 5.07.1969, Gornaya Shoria, the Tuzukhsu valley; 13 ♂♂ 9 ♀♀ – 28.07.1969, the same locality; 86 ♂♂ 28 ♀♀ – 24.06-27.07.1969, the Askiz River basin, Birikchul’ (Yu.P. Korshunov); 23 ♂♂ – 17 and 24.07.1969, Khakasia, the Baza river headwaters, (Yu. P. Korshunov); 4 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀ 13.07.1992, the Sheregesh settlement, the mountain Pustag (V.V.Ivonin)»

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 130.


The Altaian butterflies have large spots in the central cell, the band spots color is reddish-yellow or yellow.

The exact sample site of the ssp. theano in the Altai is not known. One can only hypothesize that it can be located in the western part of the Altai Mts. From the C. Altai altitudes higher than 1800 m the ssp. lederi A. Bang-Haas, 1906 (Iris, XIX: 127-128) was described; the butterflies have wide ochre spots on the exterior margin of the wings. The background of the UNS is lighter in color and more yellow than the color of theano. A. Bang-Haas indicates the wing-span 38- 40 mm (males) in theano and 30-32 mm (males), 35-36 mm (females) in lederi. In the book by Warren lederi Goltz, 1930 is cited, but it is a synonymous taxon of lederi A. Bang-Haas (Goltz cites this taxon as lederi A. Bang-Haas for no apparent reason in the Supplement to Seitz, i.l.! ― Yu. K..). Furthermore, Warren [Warren, 1936] considers it as a ssp. Nevertheless, the drawings of lederi in the Supplement to Seitz (v.10, A, No.3) and in the book by Warren do not coincide. Perhaps, this is simple due to the variability, and there is no basis of a ssp.; it is necessary to verify the primary evidence. The ssp. approximata, described by Warren on the sole specimen from the higher elevations of the Korgonski Mt. Range, Altai, is assigned in the book by Lukhtanovs [Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov ,1994] for an unknown reason to the Altai foothills and their vicinity. Our available specimens from the Mountainous Kolyvan etc., for example, are similar to the typical theano. In Warren’s photos of the specimen 7 of approximata, the exterior features and the details of genitalia do not coincide with those of tshugunovi.


Erebia dabanensis Ershov, 1871 (= tundra Staudinger, 1887).


The nominotypical ssp. occurs in Pribaikalye and the Stanovoj Upland; precisely these butterflies can have oblong ocelli. The specimen caught in the Providenie Bay on Juny, 27 1900 by A. N. Akifieva stands apart; it is marked as tschuktscha Herz, 1903. It is small, partly resembles the American youngi with an untrained eye, and is not similar to troubridgei. Its pattern is similar to this of dabanensis. It is also similar to the ssp. olshvangi that is smaller, darker and has an noticeable reduction of the brown postdiscal spots in comparison with the type. But the specimen from Providenie Bay doesn’t coincide with the Uralian one in genitalia: the valvae have an explicit «jagged heel» similar to the nominotypical dabanensis: the «heel» of the Uralian butterflies is rather oblong (in the book of 1995 there is an error on the page 188, fig. 270). In any event it turns out that on the edge of the northern Asia occur small butterflies of the type dabanensis that may be treated as a special sp., which should be defined as tschuktscha Herz, 1903; if new evidence arises, the limits of the genital variability can be specified

The ssp. dabanensis is characterised by a continuous brown postdiscal band in females and oblong black blind ocelli in both sexes.

Below follow descriptions of two ssp.


Erebia dabanensis troubridgei Dubatolov, 1992 (fig. 1, 2, 3).

Translation of original description:

«Materials [in ISEA, Novosibirsk]: the holotype – ♂, Yakutia, 180 km NEE of settlement Khandyga, the Vostochnaya Khandyga River headwaters, 232nd kilometre of the road Khandyga-Magadan, 1st July 1985 (Dubatolov)]. Paratypes: 55 ♂♂ 6 ♀♀, the same locality, 16th June – 14th July 1985 (Dubatolov); 25 ♂♂ 6 ♀♀, the same locality, 248-249th km of the road Khandyga-Magadan, the Setarym River, 28th June and 11th July 1985 (Dubatolov); ♂, the same locality, 250th km of the road Khandyga-Magadan, the Shagali River, 20th June 1984 (Popova); ♂, the Cherskogo Mt. Range, the Inyali River 50 km upstream of its mouth, 15th July 1987 (Dorofeev); ♂, the Cherskogo Mt. Range, the Ytabyt-Yuryakh River, 10-40 km upstream of its mouth, 4-9th July 1987 (Dorofeev).

Male. FWl. 20-25 mm. The UPS are dark-brown, at outer margin there are usually four rounded reddish-fulvous spots centered with black dots slightly stretched out transversally; sometimes an additional fulvous spot is developed, blind or with a black dot above the vein M1. The spots in this row are always rounded, well separated from each other. The patterns on  the UNS and also on the UPH are as in nominotypical ssp.

Female. FWl. 20-23 mm. The UPS are light-grayish-brown with a pattern as in male, the spots in the outer zone are well separated also.

Systematic notes. The new ssp. is in general larger than the nominotypical E. d. dabanensis Ersch. (= E. tundra Stgr.), described from the Khamar-Daban Mts. (the FWl. being in males 19.5-21, in females FWL. 18-20 mm). The spots in the outer area on the UPF are always rounded, well separated even in females. In E. d. dabanensis the spots are larger, usually, in females always, form a contiguous fulvous band with four black spots; this band is divided by narrow black veins only.

Biology. This butterflie is common in the mountains of Yakutia, it inhabits open larch forests, valley meadows, bogs; in the mountain tundra and stony screes it flies together with a close Holarctic sp. Erebia occulta

Origin: Vestnik zoologii, Kiev, 1992, No. 6, pp.43-44.


Erebia dabanensis olshvangi P. Gorbunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3).

Translation of the orininal description:

«.....The below described butterflies from the Polar Urals differ from other ssp. by a darker brown-black ground color and the most substantial reduction of brown postdiscal spots.

Erebia dabanensis olshvangi P.Gorbunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl.: 20 mm. Both sides of the FW are dark-brown with four separate, diffuse on the underside, fulvous-brown spots centered with small black dots; both sides of the HW have three such spots; on the UNH the postdiscal area is to some extent lightened due to grayish scales; the genitalia are ventralagous to those of other ssp.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl.: 20 mm. The UPS is brown, the underside – grayish-brown; on the UNH a light-gray postdiscal band is clearly expressed; the fulvous-brown pattern is similar with that of the holotype. Generally the new ssp. is very variable. The length of the FW ranges between 17 and 22 mm. In males the fulvous spots on the upperside of both wings in 5-10 % of individuals are absent. On the UNF they, however, never disappear entirely, on the contrary, in some specimens (15-20 % of cases) they are fused into a common band, but its width, as different from E. dabanensis troubridgei, as a rule does not exceed 2 mm.

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♂ – 20.07.1992, Polar Urals, the railway station Krasnyy Kamen’, the mountain Slantsevaya, 300- 400 m above sea level, a montane lichen-fruticulose tundra (P. Yu. Gorbunov leg.) The allotype – 10.07.1998, the same locality (V. N. Olshvang leg.) Paratypes: 7 ♂♂4 ♀♀ ─ 10- 12.07.1998, the same locality; a male – 5.07.1990 ─ the same locality; 4 ♂♂ 3 ♀♀ ─ 18-28.07.1992, the same locality.

The ssp. is named in honour of Vladimir Nikolaevich Olschwang, a researcher at IEPA UrD RAS [Institute of Ecology of Plants and Animals of Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences] , an entomologist who for a long time investigated Polar Ural and collected a part of the type series.»

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p.129.

NOTE. In some American works the continental dabanensis is cited as Erebia dabanensis youngi Holland, 1900, and some other works cite it as a separate sp. The review by [Troubridge & Philip, 1982 [83]: 107-146] justifies the independence of youngi.


Erebia callias Edwards, 1871


The ssp. altajana Staudinger, 1901 flies in the Altai and W. Sayan. In the Sayan Mts., Tuva and Pribaikalye we find the similar ssp. simulata Warren, 1933, whose butterflies have a lighter the coloring of the UNS. A ssp. tsherskiensis was described from the basin of Indigirka.


Erebia callias tsherskiensis Dubatolov, 1992 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).


Translation of original description:

«Materials: the holotype [in ISEA, Novosibirsk], ♂, East Yakutia, 185 km NW of Ust’-Nera, the Burkat Spring source, the right source of the Myuryule River, 1100-1200 m above sea level, 20thJuly 1987 (Dorofeev, expedition of the L. Starikovskii’s group). Paratypes: 23 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, the Myuryule River upper reaches, 13-16th July 1990 (Zinchenko); 18 ♂♂, the Inyali River valley, 60-140 km upstream of its mouth, 18, 20th June 1973 (Vinokurov). 9-10th July 1990 (Zinchenko, Savin, Popov).

Male. FWl. 15-19 mm. The FW is doted at the apex. Two apical ocelli vary in size, usually small, black, centered with white dots, always well separated from each other and distinctly shifted to wing apex; they are situated on a dark-reddish-brown area bordered by a discoidal vein and the vein Cu1. On the HW there may be developed up to 4 reddish spots in the outer area, usually centered with black dots. The UNS are as in E. c. simulata Wrn., but the HW are evenly colored, with specks, while the apical ocelli on the FW are well separated. The valvae are short, wide, without a heel-like ledge, teeth on their apical parts are dense. Female. FWl. 15.5-18 mm. Wing pattern like in male, FW more rounded, ground color slightly lighter. The fringes are different from male’s ones, they are lighter than the ground color, some chequered. The pattern of the UNH is more mottled, sometimes central band is weakly expressed and two thornal ocelli are hardly noticeable.

Systematic notes: Hitherto 4 ssp. of E. callias were known: E. c. callias Edw. ― the mountains of Colorado, North America; E. c. sibirica Stgr. ― the Tarbagatai Mts.; E. c. altajana Stgr. ― the Altai; E. c. simulata Wrn. – the Sayans, North Mongolia, the Khamar-Daban Mts. [Warren, 1936; Lukhtanov, 1987]. Our specimens were collected several thousand kilometres apart of all the known ssp.; they differ with the pointed FW, well separated ocelli distinctly shifted to apex, and also by the genitalia structure ― the valva is wide, the ration of its width in the narrowest point to its length being 0.23, i.e. larger than in other ssp.; the teeth on the apical part are densely set, as different from other Siberian ssp.»

Origin: Vestnik zoologii, Kiev, 1992, No. 6, pp. 42-43.


Erebia fletcheri Elwes, 1899


Erebia fletcheri chorymensis Korshunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

Translation of the original description:

«...Below Erebia fletcheri chorymensis Korshunov, ssp. n. is described from the Kuznetski Alatau Mts.

HOLOTYPE: a female. FWl.: 22 mm. Both wing sides are brown; the FW has a wide fulvous-brown band, slightly tapering to the ventral angle, with four oval black spots about 1 mm long; On the HW three [the words «of four» was erroneously omited here ― Yu.K.] fulvous spots contain black dots, as well as an additional fifth small spot in front of the ventral vein.

ALLOTYPE: a male. FWl.: 22 mm. The postdiscal band on the UPF is darker and bears smaller black dots. The paratypes have four of five fulvous spots on the HW, of which one (in one specimen), three, four, or five being centred with black dots. In the nominotypical ssp. (the holotype being a female) the black spots on the FW are round and almost twice as large, the second on thr UNF being almost thrice as large. Besides, in the butterflies from the Altai there is a tiny black spot at the apex which is not situated in the same row with others, which is absent in all the specimens from the Kuznetski Alatau. The HW in the nominotypical ssp. has four roundish reddish-fulvous spots, the two of which at the ventral angle being centered with black dots.

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♀♀ – 12.07.1975, the Kuznetskiy Alatau, the environs of the mountain Bobrovaya (Yu.Korshunov); the allotype: ♂♂ – the same locality and date; paratypes: 5 ♀ 1 ♀ – 9.07.1975, the same locality; 4 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀ – 12.07.1975, the same locality; 4 ♂♂ – 7.07.1975, the Kuznetskii Alatau, the Sarala river valley; 4 ♂♂ – 25- 26.06.1978, the same locality.The name is derived from the Khakas word khorym – a stone scree.

Origin: Dnevnye baboschki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 132.


Årebia fletcheri chajataensis Dubatolov, 1992 (fig. 1, 2, 3)

The ssp. chajatensis has been described for the Suntar-Khayata Mt. Range.

Translation of the original description:

«Materials: the holotype [in ISEA, Novosibirsk], ♀ – Yakutia, 180 km NEE of the settlement Khandyga, the East Khandyga headwaters, 232nd kilometre of the road Khandyga-Magadan, 23rd July 1985 (Dubatolov). paratypes: 8 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ the same locality, 14th June ― 12th July 1985 (Dubatolov); ♂, 248-249 km of the road Khandyga ―Magadan, the Seratym River, 28th June 1985 (Dubatolov).

Female. FWl. 21.5-24 mm. The UPS dark-brown, fore ones with an ochre band in the outer area. On this band, between the veins M1 and Cu2, there are 4 large oval black spots, so that a distance between band border and spots is 2-3 times less than spot diameter. Sometimes an additional small black dot is developed above the vein M1.The UNS as in the nominotypical ssp.

Male. FWl. 20-23 mm. Pattern on the FW is as in female but the band in the outer zone of the FW is reddish-brown, further narrower than in females, while in one of the paratypes it is split into separate spots, as in E. dabanensis troubridgei.

Systematic notes. The new ssp. is characterized by a more narrow band on the FW and larger spots on it, so that the distance from this and the margin to the spots is much less than the spot diameter in the nominotypical ssp. E. f. fletcheri Elwes [Warren, 1936: pl. 101, fig. 1587, 1592] described on a single female from the Altai, and also in other specimens from the western mountains of S. Siberia, the fulvous band is wide, at least the distance between its margin to the black spots is greater than the diameter of the spots themselves.

BIOLOGY. Imagines are rare, met with mostly on stony mountain slopes, less frequently in the mountain tundra.»

Origin: Vestnik zoologii, Kuev, 1992, No. 6, p. 43.


Erebia pandrose (Borkhausen, 1788)


The ssp. Erebia pandrose orientalis Goltz, 1930 was described from the mountains of S. Siberia, but this name was preoccupated by Erebia epiphron orientalis Elwes, 1900. For this reason I have replaced this name by yernikensis Korshunov, 1994, nom. nov. It differs from the butterflies of N. Europe by in general smaller size and more faded color of the postdiscal field on the UPF.

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