Leptidea amurensis (Ménétriés,1859)


The geographical variability has not been investigated sufficiently. The brown scales on the UNS of the spring butterflies have attracted the attention of Graeser, who has described the variation vernalis Graeser, 1892 from Blagoveshchensk. The tрxa emisinapis Verity, 1911 (Pribaykalye), vibiloides Verity, 1911 (Priamurye) are similar to amurensis. The butterflies with unique features were described for the C. Yakutia.


Leptidea amurensis jacutia P.Gorbunov et Korshunov, ssp. n. (fig. 1, 2)

Translation of the original description:

лButterflies from the Central Yakutia are notable for a noticeable yellowish tint on the UPS and more intensive, than in other ssp., ochre suffusion on the UNH and especially at the apex and along the fore margin of the FW. These characters let us establish a ssp. Leptidea amurensis jacutia P. Gorbunov et Korshunov, ssp. n.

MATERIALS: Holotype: ♂ Ц 2.06.1985, Yakutsk, the botanical garden (V. Dubatolov). Paratypes: ♂ Ц 21.06.1962, the same locality; 2 ♂♂ - 28.05. 1985, the same locality; ♂ - 2.06.1985 the same locality.╗

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 56.


Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus,1758)


The geographical variability is at the beginning of its investigation. There is too little evidence about the single specimens from S. Primorye to warrant any conclusions. Perhaps, the form orientalis Kardakov, 1928 is a ssp. of daplidice and not of edusa. The description of a find from the Ural region is cited below:


Pontia daplidice kulyginskyi Korshunov, 1998

Translation of the original description:

л...The discovery of the taxon which we describe below belongs to an Uralian colleague E. A. Kulyginsky. When sending us these miniature butterflies he persuaded us much to pay a special attention to them. All this took place still before discussion of the publications devoted to the differences between daplidice and edusa. That time he stressed that in the Chelyabinsk Distr. in 1975-1979 he met the exclusively large form of the sp. And only at the station Bredy in 1978 in August he found small butterflies which he at first visually confused with some light blues. Having received these small imagines in 1977 we found them similar with those small specimens which were regularly observed by us in spring and autumn in the Novosibirsk Distr. Check of these materials nowadays have showed a difference: only the butterflies from the South Urals are close to daplidice, and we describe them in the memory of Evgenii Aleksandrovich Kulyginskii as Pontia daplidice kulyginskyi Korshunov, ssp. n.

FWl.: 17-20 mm.

HOLOTYPE: a male, above and beneath its pattern, as well as that of the paratypes, little differ from edusa, but one can note that the discal spot have a central lightening.

ALLOTYPE: a female, which also resembles edusa, but it, as well as the paratypes, has a black pattern on the UPH more developed and has no dark stripe at outer margin at ventral angle in front of the black rounded spots. Among the paratypes a female is conspicuous with the FWl. of 22 mm, in which a dark suffusion is developed on the FW extending from the apical black spots to the middle of the cell, while on the UNF such a suffusion is expressed only at the cell. The UNH is also of an aberrant nature as almost entire its surface is densely suffused with yellowish-green scales, white spots being hardly noticeable in the center of the wing and well expressed only along the margin.

MATERIALS: Holotype - ♂, 15.08.1978, Bredy, steppe, E. A. Kulyginsky. Holotype Ч ♀, 15.08.1978, the same label. Paratypes - five ♂♂ and three ♀♀ - 16.08.1978, a steppefied forest border at station Bredy.

In spring 1997 on 19th May in the Orenburg Nature Reserve, in the Burtinskaya Steppe, a male with the FWl. of 19 mm was collected by our colleague I. Lyubechansky. This was a first corroboration of a reality of the ssp. described.╗

Origin: Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, pp. 12-13, t. 7 a, с.


Euchloe ausonia (Hübner, 1804) (= simplonia Freyer, 1828)


We suppose that in the South Ural there are butterflies of the ssp. volgensis Krulikowsky, 1897 (TL is neibourhoods of Saratov; it was described on the basis of several large summer imagines). The small spring butterflies are known as uralensis Bartel, 1902. Those and the other forms have a rather large black discal spot on the FW which is rather large in comparison with ausonia. We describe the butterfly from Altai.

Translation of the original description:

л...The butterflies from Altai, described below, differ from the western ssp. by a faded muddy-green UNH ground colour and smaller white spots. By these and other traits they look like a peculiar transition (especially in the population of the Chuya River valley) to E. naina.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 22 mm. The UPS are white; the FW apex is dusted with dark scales, the suffusion containing three white spots; the dark discoidal spot is crescent-shaped. The UNF are white, the dark discoidal spot with a contrasted light discoidal vein; the apex is dusted with dark and green scales and has the same white spots as on the upperside; the costal margin with short black striae. The UNH are greyish-green with white spots of different sizes, mainly with sharp edges.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl. 23 mm. The UPS is white; the dark discoidal spot is large, concave on its sides, and, as different from E. n. naina [an error ― must be E.ausonia ausonia, ― Yu.K.], is not fused [along suffused veins] with the apical suffusion, which contains three elongate white spots.

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♂, Altai, Katunskiy mt. range, 15 km SW of village Katanda, interfluve of the Kuragan and Kucherla rivers, alpine meadow, 2300 m, 13th July 1983 (V.V.Dubatolov leg.); the allotype: ♀, the same locality, 14th July 1983 (V.V.Dubatolov leg.);paratypes: Altai, UstТ-Kan Distr., Karlinskiy Pass, 15th July 1970 (Kosinykh leg.); ♂ - the same locality as for the holotype, 12th July 1983 ( V.V.Dubatolov leg.); 1 ♂1 ♀- Katunskiy mt. range, the KatunТ river headwaters at the Kapchal river mouth, 1700 m, 9th July 1987 (O.Kosterin leg.); ♂ - the Kapchal valley, 2300 m, 10th July 1987 (O.Kosterin leg.); 2 ♂ ♂1 ♀ - the KatunТ headwaters, terrain  Altyn-Bulak, an old felled land, 1800 m, 13th July 1987 (O.Kosterin leg.); ♂ - KatUNWkiy mt. range, lower reaches of the Koksu river, 1600 m, 2th July 1988 (O.Kosterin leg.); ♂ -left bank of the Koksu river, long-forb meadow on wood opening, 1900 m, 12th July 1988 (O.Kosterin leg.); 1 ♂ 2 ♀ - the Argem ( Direntay ) river ( a tributary of the Koksu ) headwaters, an alpine meadow, 2200 m, 21th July 1988 (O.Kosterin leg.); ♂, the Kholzun mt. range, the watershed of the Tigirek and Khamir river headwaters, 2300 m, 17th July 1983 (V.A.Lukhtanov leg.).

The ssp. is named after the surname of Vladimir Vladimirovich [must be Viktorovich instead of Vladimirovich ― Yu. K.], an entomologist of ISEA (Novosibirsk), who collected a part of the type series of the new ssp.╗

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 62.


Euchloe naina (V. Kozhantshikov, 1923) (= simplonia auct., nec Boisduval, 1828, belia auct., nec Cramer, 1782)


In the southern mountains live the butterflies of the ssp. naina. In Yakutia, near Magadan and in Kamchatka the ssp. jakutia Back, 1990 is widespread; it is smaller than naina, in many females the wings have a yellowish tint. From the northern latitudes we describe the ssp.kusnezovi.


Euchloe naina kusnezovi Korshunov, 1995

Translation of the original description:

л...Below we describe the butterflies from the Yenisei River low reaches, Taymyr, and the Putorana Plateau. They are closer to the ssp. naina than to jacutia, but differ from the former by in average more narrow wings and a darker UNH ground colour.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 22 mm. The UPS is white; the FW costal margin from the base to the discoidal vein is dusted with black scales, further to the apex there are alternating black and white patches along the margin; the discoidal vein is accompanied by a figured dark spot which is to some extent more rounded than this in E. naina naina. At the apex there are a dark stripe 2-3 mm wide, which is parallel to the outer edge, and dark spots at the vein endings at the edge; the space between the stripe and the edge being generally white while in E. naina naina they are almost fully suffused. On the UNF the dark discoidal spot is larger than in E. n . naina. The UNH is almost exactly identical to that of E. n. naina, but the veins are not so conspicuous.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl. 23 mm. On the UPS the white ground colour is almost displaced by a dark suffusion, the white areas remaining only in the centre and at the edges of wings.The UNH ground colour is greyish-green without a dark suffusion; the veins are not contrasted.

MATERIALS: the holotype - the Yenisei lower reaches, the Irbo-Keta river middle flow, 18th July 1982 (D.M.Pupavkin leg); allotype Ц the same locality, 21st July 1982; paratypes: 5 ♂♂ 3 ♀♀ - the Yenisey lower reaches, the Rybnaya river middle flow, 12th - 21st July 1982 ♂ - the Yenisey lower reaches, the Togbym river middle flow, 12th July 1982; 14 ♂♂ 11 ♀♀ - the Yenisey lower reaches, the Irbo-Keta river middle flow, 18th July 1982 ( D.M.Pupavkin leg.); ♂ - Taymyr, the Ary-Mas forest, July 1983 (Polovinkina leg.)

The ssp. being describing was earlier reported in [Korshunov, 1985] as E. ausonia arctica, as it was designated in the labels by Nikolay Yakovlevich Kusnezov ( 1873-1948), a well-known Russian lepidopterologist and zoogeographist of the first half of this century.╗

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 63.

NOTE. A similar butterfly was caught near the v. Sidorovsk on the Taz R.. [The Red Book of the Jamalo-Neneztki National Reg., 1997]. Our colleague V. K. Tuzov in the book л Butterflies of Russia╗, v. 1, 1997 consideres the ssp. kusnezovi disputable and assumes it as a synonym to the ssp. occidentalis Verity, 1908. I note that occidentalis lives in Algeria, France, Spain, N. Italy, and it cannot be related to Siberia.


Colias palaeno (Linnaeus, 1761)


The individual variability obviously masks the geographical one. In the Urals and in the forest zone of the W. Siberia dwell the butterflies similar to palaeno. In the tundra and the forest-tundra of the W. Siberia they are similar to lapponica Staudinger, 1871; within the populations prevail the lighter males with a narrow dark border of wings. To the east of Yenissei in the middle zone, in Priamurye and in Primorye there is widespread occurrence of the ssp. orientalis Staudinger, 1892. It is similar to the European form europomene and is distinct from the nominotypical ssp. by virtue the generally smaller size of the bright lemon-yellow colouring of the UPS in the males and a wider dark bordering. The females are greenish-white; the UNS have a thick coating of brown scales, whereas the males are noteworthy for the green scales on the UNS. For the northern lowlands of the E. Siberia there are attestations of the ssp. arctica Verity, 1908 (the place of capture is the valley of the Vitim R., see table 49, photo 21 in the book by Verity), the butterflies are a little bit smaller than orientalis. A. I. Kurentzov (1970) indicates for the high mountains in S. Sikhote-Alin the Korean ssp. sugitani Esaki, 1929; the lemon-yellow male is remarcable for a black border that is almost twice as wide as than the border of orientalis. The females have several lengthwise light stripes. In Sakhalin dominate males with pale-yellow upper colouring and dense brown scales on the UNH. They are described as sachalinensis Matsumura, 1919. There are peculiar butterflies in Chukotka.


Colias palaeno gomojunovae Korshunov, 1996 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

Translation of original description:

л...It was Kurentzov [Kurentzov, 1970] who first noticed that Chukotka is inhabited by a peculiar variety of palaeno, but he thought that it is identical to the Alaskan form, designed by him as schippewa (lapsus calami ― Yu. K.) instead of chippewa Edw. However, the males of chippewa resemble our specimens only by the UPS, but the butterflies are much more yellow above and the marginal band is wider and is not cut through by light veins; the UNS is more greenish, the discal spots are absent or hardly noticeable only on the FW. In the females from Alaska I have studied 7 males and 3 females from there: the black discal spots are seen above and beneath, the ground colour is yellowish. The females from Chukotka have a yellowish-white ground colour and no discal spots. There is also a difference in the genitalia, that was mentionned by Kurentzov [Kurentzov, 1970]. By these characters we describe a new ssp.:

Colias palaeno gomojunovae Koshunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl.20 mm. The UPS is yellowish green, the marginal band on the FW is wider than on the HW, the colour of the marginal band is brownish, the band is not cut through by light veins. There is no discal spot on the UPF, but it is slightly seen on the underside of both wings. The UNH is yellowish green, with scattered grey scales. The UNF is of the same colour, but grey scales present only at the costal margin. On the UNH the silvery spot large, its diameter approximately equals to the length of elongate (and also silvery) spot on the transversal vein.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl. 21 mm. The UPS is yellowish-white. The marginal band at the apex is relatively wide, it is tapering to the ventral angle, forming a kind of a triangle. Light spots present only in its wide part. On theHW there is only a narrow marginal streak at the fore angle. The discal spots are missing.

The UNH is muddy green, a silvery spot is smaller than in the male, there is an additional tiny round spot above it. On the UPF there is only traces of the discal spot, the apex is of the same colour as the HW, the rest part of the wing is light. In the male paratypes the marginal band is distinctly cut through by light veins only in 3 of 7 specimens, which are worn out, in fresh specimens it is darker and is covered with silvery scales becoming worn out later.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂ - 30.07.1968, the Magadan Region, The Bilibino Distr. (N. Gomoyunova); the allotype: ♀ Ц 12.07.1968, the left bank of the Khoroshaya River, a tributary of the Molondzha River, herbs/dwarf birches and willows/cloudberry (N. Gomojunova). Paratypes: 2 ♂♂s - 3 and 15.07.1967, the settlement Markovo on the AnadyrТ River (A.G. Mirzaeva); 2 ♂♂ 1 ♀ - 12 and 13.07.1968, the Khoroshaya River left bank; ♂ - 19.07.1969, the Molondzha River floodland; 2 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀ - 10 and 14.07.1969, the Magadan Region, the Kegali River, a larch parkland with the dwarf birches and willows; 2 ♂♂ - 25.07 1nd 2.08.1986, West Chukotka, [the settelment] UstТ-Chaun, 100 km south of Pevek (V. Dubatolov).

The ssp. is dedicated to the memory of Nina Petrovna Gomojunova (1933-1973) ― an entomologist and parasitologist of the Biological Institute of Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences, who collected in Chukotka following the nomadic rain-deer breeders. She tragically perished in an aircraft catastrophe.╗

Origin: Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, p. 18.

NOTE. Some scholars believe that there is no actual difference between arctica and gomojunovae. They fail to take into account not only morphological indications, but also the ecological attachment of these different butterflies; once more we emphasize that рrctica is an inhabitant of the plains, whereas gomojunovae is found in the mountains. In the book of the Moscow collectors лButterflies of Russia╗, v. 1, 1997 chippewa with лits╗ ssp. gomojunovae is adduced without any explanations, and in table 79 (photos No. 7-9) are shown the specimens of arctica Verity, 1908. Furthermore, sugitanii is treated as a synonym of aias Fruhstorfer, 1903, for no understandable reason. As it is well-known, aias is the ssp. from the alpine zone in the mountains of the C. Japan, and is unrelated to our fauna.


Colias sareptensis Staudinger, 1871 (= alfacariensis Ribbe, 1905, australis Verity, 1911)


Among the butterflies from the forest-steppe of the S. Ural and W. Siberia, up to Yenisei, there sometimes occur specimens similar to the south-european sp. Colias sareptensis Staudinger, 1871 (= alfacariensis Ribbe, 1905, australis Verity, 1911). It would be possible to posit a stat. n., if in 1876 in the лRev. Russ. dТ Entomol.╗ (8, p. 153-154) S. lferaky had not deduced this taxon from the denotation of a hybrid between hyale and erate. S. Alferaky represents sareptensis as a лpermanent modification, appropriate to the Southern and South-eastern Russia╗. He writes that sareptensis is larger than typical males of hyale, the colour of its wings is much more yellow, frequently identical with the colour of the males of erate; the black border of the fore- and hindwings is much wider than the border of C. hyale. The females are larger than the males; the colour of their wings is white with an admixture of yellow; the black border on the forewings reaches the inner corner as in the females of erate ab. pallida Stgr. The wings of the females of sareptensis are much nore oblong thah these of those hyale. Furthermore, the butterflies fly in the same places and to the same periods of time as hyale and erate. Unfortunately, the western authors, having devoting so much space to substantiating australis and later alfacariensis, paid no attention to the Russian publications. For Zaisan Reg.. and the Kazakhstano-Dzhungarski Reg. the ssp. saissanica Reissinger, 1989 was recently described. Whether such butterflies will be described for Altai, remains to be seen. The European sareptensis differs from hyale in the praeimaginal forms. In particular, the adult caterpillar has on each side two yellow bands, and each segment has black square spots beside itself. The lower edge of the lateral band is accompanied by the smaller black spots [Henriksen, Kreutzer, 1982, Ebert, 1991].


Colias chrysotheme (Esper, 1781)


The nominotypical ssp. occurs in the S. Ural. In Transuralye and further eastwards in the plains and foothills up to S. Zabaikalye (v. Kyra) dwell the butterflies of the ssp. andre Hemming, 1933 (substituted name instead of sibirica Grum-Grshimailo, 1893; TL - the vicinity of Krasnoyarsk). They are remarcable for a more pale юrange-yellow colouring, a wider dark border; the females occasionally have be-coloured FW: a part of the orange backraund is replaced by a greenish one. The butterflies from Altai are described as a particular ssp.


Colias chrysotheme elena P.Gorbunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

Translation of the original description:

л...Below we describe very peculiar butterflies of the Altai Mountains, the Sayans, and the mountains of Tuva, differing from lowland ssp. by a more even and bright colouration of the UPS, narrower light streaks along the veins across the dark marginal band in males and darker and more contrasted colouration of females, which tend to resemble C. thisoa by these characters.

Colias chrysotheme elena P. Gorbunov, ssp. n.

MALE: FWl. 24.4-27.9 mm (26.2 mm in the holotype). UPS light-orange with a narrow yellowish stripe along the FW fore margin and an area of the same colour at the ventral margin of the HW. A slight dusting with dark scales is noticeable on the HW. The marginal band on the FW in its middle part is 3.5-5 mm wide, usually all over its length it is cut through with narrow light streaks along the veins, which most often donТt reach the fringe. The maximum width of the marginal band on the HW is 2.4-4 mm; light venal streaks on it are even narrower than on the FW, in some specimens they are hardly seen at the internal margin of the band. Underside the ground colour of the HW is yellow, that in the central area of the FW is orange-yellow, the pattern is as in the ssp. andre. The genitalia are alike those in C. chrysotheme andre and C. thisoa [the statement concerning thisoa is evidently of no relevance Ц- Yu.K].

FEMALE: FWl. 25.5-28.7 mm (27.6 mm in the allotype). The UPF is bright orange-red (while in the ssp. andre it is yellowish-orange or orange-yellow) with a dark suffusion in the basal area and along the fore margin. The marginal band on the FW is blackish-brown, 4.8-6.0 mm wide in its narrowest part, with very contrasted 6-7 yellow spots. The black discal spot is large, usually of a triangular shape. The UPH is muddy-orange (much darker than in the females of andre) with an orange discal spot about 2 mm in diameter. On the HW the marginal band contains two yellow spots at the apex, four other yellow spots interrupt the band fusing with the ground colour at its internal margin. The discal spot is oval-shaped, 3.0-3.6 mm long. The UPS ground colour is greenish-yellow, but orange in the central area of the FW. There is a row of 3-5 black spots along the outer edge of the FW. The discal spot on the UNF is somewhat larger than on the upperside and contains a light dot. On the UNH just above is an oval silvery discal spot, there is an additional small silvery spot.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂- 29.06.1993, SE Altai, the village Aktash (V. Barkhatov). The allotype: ♀ - 26.07.1982, Tuva, Choon-Khem (O. Fileva). Paratypes: 3 ♂♂ - 2-3.07.1971 , Tuva, the settlement Shuurmak, a steppe (S. Nikolaev); ♀ Ц 25.06.1971, the same locality; ♀- 16.07.1980, Altai Mts., the Seminskii Pass (Yu. Korshunov); 2 ♂♂ - 25.06.1992, SE Altai, the village Aktash (V. Barkhatov); 14 ♂♂ 1 ♀ Ц 27-29.06.1993, the same locality.╗

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, pp. 67-68.


Colias nastes Boisduval, [1834]


On Suntar-Khayata Mt. Range, in the basin of the rivers Yana and Indigirka fly the butterflies of the ssp. jacutica Kurentzov, 1970 (== jacuttica Ferris, 1985, == jacuticola Weiss et Mracek, 1989), with an ash-grey background on the UPS, the dark border is wide with contrasting white spots. The ssp. dezhnevi Korshunov, 1995 inhabits the Chukot peninsula:

The name Colias nastes dezhnevi Korshunov, 1995 has been suggested to replace Colias nastes sibirica Kurentzov, 1970 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4) since the latter was preoccupied by Colias aurora Lederer, 1852 (fig. 1, 2). This ssp., reported for Chukotka and the Kolyma River basin, has a pale greenish-yellow UPS ground colour, the light spots on the HW margin are of the ground colour.

NOTE. One might expect that our publications would explain much. But such is not the case.. In the book of the Moscow collectors лButterflies of Russia╗, v. 1, by 1997 everything is lumped together, mongola Alpheraky, 1897 and streckeri Grum-Grshimailo, 1895, which admitedly was described by Grigori Efimovich Grum-Grshimailo, but from the the Distr. of Alberta in Canada. What is the connection here with North-East Asia? And is the point of synonymization the taxon zemblica Verity, 1911 to streckeri, described as far as from Novaja Zemlya?!


Colias hecla Lefebvre, 1836


The butterflies from the Polar Ural and northern W. Siberia are rather close to the ssp. orientis Wnukowsky, 1929 (pro orientalis Grum-Grshimailo, 1893), known from Yakutia and the N.-E. Asia, they differ from the Lapland ssp. sulitelma Aurivillius, 1890 by their wider border, on which the females have more compact isolated light spots.

NOTE. The indicating of the ssp. orientis for Altai [Rehnelt, 1983] in Nota Lepid., 6 (4): 244, as I have established with the help of B. A. Izenbek, whose material had been used by Rehnelt, is based on an incorrect locality and definition (the butterflies belonged to C. hyperborea and originated from the northen Far East!).


Colias thisoa Ménétriés, 1832


Colias thisoa nikolaevi Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1, 2).

Translation of the original description:

лSpecimens from the mountains of S. Siberia have differences and we describe them as C. thisoa nikolaevi Korshunov, ssp. n.

Holotype Ц a male. FWl. 25 mm. The UPS are intensively yellow with a weak violet flash, while in the western butterflies they are red-yellow with a stronger flash. In difference from the nominotypical ssp., the black border is somewhat narower. The silvery spot on the UNH is larger. In females the UPF is red-orange, brighter than in males. As compared with other ssp., their wings are less suffused with black and red scales. The FW outer edge is quite straight. The dark border at ventral angle above the FW is narrower than in the Tien Shan race urumtsiensis Verity, 1909, without a violet tint, it contains relatively large yellow spots of different size.

MATERIALS: holotype - ♂, 20.06.1960. Altai, Kurai, the stow Tyurguno, a steppen patch. Paratypes - five ♀ - 14.07.1959, Chuiskaya StepТ, the YustydТ River valley at village Ak-Tal, two ♂♂ Ц 11.07 and 27.08.1960, Kurai, the stow Argatyt, ♀ and ♂ Ц 20.07.1960, Kurai, ♂ and three ♀♀ - 7.07.1973, the valley to Aktru, 12 km south of Kurai, meadows in front of a forest, ♂ Ц2.07.1986, Altai Nature Reserve, Lake DzhulukulТ, 2200 m, N. Zolotukhin, ♂ - 20.07.1972, Tuva, Moren, a river valley, J. Vijdalepp, three ♂♂, two ♀♀ - 10.06.1992, village Aktash, Kurai Mt. Range, a steppefied slope, 2100 m, V. Barkhatov.

The ssp. is named in honour of Sergei LТvovich Nikolaev, who collected many Altai butterflies for the Zoological Museum collection and was our faithful comrade in various Siberian expeditions.╗

Origin: Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p. 14.


Colias aquilonaris Grum-Grshimailo, 1899.


As the status of this sp. without real grounds and verifications is supposed to be doubtful (the лcriticists╗ do not read, as a rule, the first-description), we wish to cite here the complete text of the first description and the judgement by G. . Grum-Grshimailo (in Ann. Mus. Acad. Sci. St.-Petersb.,1899, IV: 457-458):

лColias aquilonaris sp. n. (a C. hecla var.?). Supra alae ♂ aurantiacae, limbo nigrofusco, puncto centrali parvo oblongo, saepe subnullo, macula discocellulari per magna rubra, fimbria et maegine costali roseis; subtus alae anticae dilute aurantiacae, ad marginem internum pallidiores, nigro sparsae, maculis antemarginalibus obliteratis nigro-fuscis parvis vel subnullis; alae posticae ochraceo-flavae nigrescenti et basin versus viridescenti conspersae, macula discocellulari duplici argentosa, late rubescenti - fusco circumdato. Alae o supra aurantiacae, anticae costam et basin versus viridescentinigro atomatae, limbo externo lato nigro-fusco maculis parvis sulphureis notato, posticae obscuriores, disco omnino nigricanti, maculis limbalibus sulphureis parvis, macula discocellulari magna aurantiaca; subtus alae olivaceo-vel ochraceoflavae, anticae in disco dilute aurantiacae, posticae fuscescenet viridescenti dense atomatae males-females - 22,5 - 25 mm. In valle flum. Olenek, 67,5 lat.sept., VII 1874, a Dom. Czekanowski et in valle fl. Janae, 16. VII.1885, a Cl. Toll et cl. Bunge detecta. (4 ♂♂ 4 ♀♀ in coll. Mus. Zool. Ac. Caes. sc. Petr.).

For a long time I hesitated to single out aquilonaris as an independent sp. But a thorough study of the available specimens and the fact of presence of the true C. hecla in the Polar Siberia overcame my indecision (see below regarding my var. orientalis from the valleys of the rivers Lena and Olenek, that differs from the Lapland C. hecla Lef. only by its greater size and the large yellow spots on the border band. The specimens caught in the valley of the lower Ob represent a noticeable transition from orientalis nobis to the typical Lapland hecla). The main distinctive feature of C. aquilonaris is the лdirty╗ yellow dense colouring of the UNS of the wings, which in the females shades over into an olive-yellow. The Lapland hecla has neither such colouring nor a transition to it; the same may be said about the Greenland representant of this sp. (var. zetterstedtii Gr.-Gr., лMemoires sur les lepidopteres╗, IV, p.297). Nevertheless, I know a female specimen in the collection of His Majesty Prince Nicolai Mikhailovich where it is grouped among hecla and has the similar colouring of the UNS of the HW; but this specimen is larger than the other ones of hecla in the same collection and has a wider border band; furthermore, it was caught somewhere in the valley ow the Lower Yenissei. Thus, it doesnТt belong to hecla. Another feature of C. aquilonaris, distinguishig the latter from C. hecla, is the absolutely different form of the wings which are much wider than the wings of C. hecla. Finally, the third, minor feature of C. aquilonaris is the border band of the FW which are wider than that found in C. hecla, and which are enlarged towards the top, whereas the Greenland variety of hecla shares this feature, too. The HW of C. aquilonaris, like these of the Greenland variety , are heavily darkened by a thin coating of black scales. These features are quite sufficient, in my opinion, to recognize the C. aquilonaris as a sepate item in the classification of the genus. The specimen from the Yana valley, delivered by Bunge and Toll, is less typical than the specimens caught in the Olenek valley by Chekanowski [┼цхуюфэшъ чююы.ьєчх , .-., Є.IV,1899 (1900): 457-458. TS Ц the N. Siberia (latitude 67,5 North), Olenek r. Habitat: from the Putoran Mts. upto the Kolyma r. and Chukotka (Providenije Bay); strips of tundra and meadows in the valley of Majmechi r. in Putoran, tundras and sparse larch forests elsewhere.Ф

NOTE. We have no doubts regarding the independence of the sp. In fact, it was quite accurately defined by the specimens in I. ZkharzhevskiТs collection from the Putoran Plateau, according to the previously mentioned features defined by G. E. Grum-Grshimailo. Unfortunately the Colias had suffered of the hands of a certain УswindlerФ. According to the information of A. LТvovskij, above the label лaquilonaris╗ in the collection were affixed лall kind of riffraff╗! How could it be possible to detect here a conspecifity with viluiensis? In the book лButterflies of Russia╗, 1997, tab. 36, No. 9-12 there are various photos with the anotation лviluiensis aquilonaris╗ that have nothing common with G. E. Grum-GrshimailoТs taxon.


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