Apatura metis Freyer, 1829.
W. Siberia the ssp. irtyshika (see the
description below). In Zabaikalye and in the southern Far East the ssp. substituta
Butler, 1873: the butterflies have a
darker background, clear pattern on the UNH, a well expressed ocellus at the
ventral angle. Under the name praeclara
Moltrecht in O.Bang-Haas, 1927 a large form of substituta was described
with a red-brown colouring on the UPS with a violet tint in the submarginal
zone. The females of praeclara
have dark-brown-black UPS. The submarginal half of the band on the FW is
indistinct, diffuse, yellow-brown, distinct and wide on the HW. The white band
on both wings is yellow-coated and narrow as in substituta.
In general A.
metis tends to have local forms which somewhat resemle ilia.
The dark forms of A. metis substituta
are the Far East taxa: abramovi
Kurentzov, 1970 (it was described as a ssp. of A.
iris from the Gorjun R. from the Lower Priamurye and the Samarga R. in
the littoral zone of the Sikhote-Alin Mt. Range), together with krylovi
Kurentzov, 1937 (described as a ssp. from the N. Sikhote-Alin). In the S.
Primorye there are also sparse occurrences of a form with strongly extended
ochre bands. From the Kunashir Island was described the taxon doii
Apatura metis irtyshika Korshunov, 1982
of the original description:
metis irtyshika Korshunov, ssp. n.
FWl. 32 mm. The UPS: are brown with whitish and yellowish spots forming a
pattern characteristic to the sp. As different from other ssp., the blue lustre
is weaker expressed. On the HW the discal row of spots (the central stripe) has
a lighter colouring. On the HW the ventral area above the yellow ocellus at the
end of the postdiscal band mantains no dark dot (it is present in other ssp.).
Large light spots at the HW outer margin are wider than the neighbouring
postdiscal dark band (in other ssp. these spots are not wider but narrower or
equal). In the ventral part of the UPF the dark ocellus is situated within a
distinct yellowish spot (as in a close sp. A. ilia Den. et Schiff.), in other ssp. there are no such spot.
FWl. 35 mm. The UPS are brown, all the spots formi a pattern characteristic to
the sp., but are more yellowish than in the male. Neither blue nor any other
lustre is present. Other characters are similar to the male.
material in ISEA (Novosibirsk).
holotype: a male Ė Pavlodar Distr., village Kachiry, 7.07.1972. The allotype:
a female, there, 3.07.1972. Paratypes: 2 males from Pavdodar and Omsk Distr.s
Ė v. Tshernolutshíe on Irtysh River (Zaika).Ľ
New sp., Novosibirsk, 1982, iss. 16 ,
Ō–»ŐŇ◊ņÕ»Ň. ŃŗŠÓųÍŤ irtyshica ÍŗÍ ęiliaĽ Ť ęilia var.metisĽ ŠŻŽŤ ÓÚžŚųŚŪŻ šŽˇ ÓÍū. „. —ŚžŤÔŗŽŗÚŤŪŮÍŗ ‚ ÍÓŪŲŚ ÔūÓÝŽÓ„Ó ‚ŚÍŗ (—ů‚ÓūŲŚ‚, 1894, Elwes, 1899).
The butterflies of the ssp. irtyshica
were designated as ęiliaĽ
var. metisĽ in the environs of
Semipalatinsk at the end of the last century [Suvortsev, 1894; Elwes, 1899].
RODDIA Korshunov, 1995.
translation of the original description:
Korshunov, gen. n.
l-album Esper, 1780. A monotypic holarctic genus.
imago. FWl. is 26- 32 mm. The wing shape and pattern resemble those of both
and Nymphalis. The outer
margin of wing is toothed. The UPS is reddish-fulvous with rather large black
spots and a white spot at the costal margin of each wing. The wing bases are
covered with dense soft hairs. The UNS is brown, the postdiscoidal area being
lighter with dark streaks, or reddish-brown.
taxon is named in honour of a forester and entomologist Eugeni Georgievich Rodd
(1871-1933), an explorer of Altai and the Upper Priobíye.Ľ
Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995,
Euphydryas ichnea (Boisduval, 1832).
the Urals, W. Siberia and Altai flies the sbsp. altaiana Wnukowsky, 1929
(= altaica A.
Bang-Haas in Seitz, 1908, nom. praeocc.) The ssp. intermedia
occurs in Yakutia. In the mountains of the S. Siberia from Sayan up to Stanovoi
Range dwell butterflies with a dominance of specimens with ochre-red spots in
the central part of the UPS, they are known as mongolica Staudinger, 1892.
The specimens from the southern Far East differ from the Siberian ones by the
virtue of the monotone brick-red background of the UPS and by a certain
reduction of the dark spots. Similar butterflies from Sakhalin were described as
COMMENTARY. We restore the original name of this sp. Actually, the change of the
name was stipulated for that reason that Boisduvalís drawing seemed wrong.
Nevertheless, N. Ňrshoff
[Erschoff, 1888) noticed that ęBoisduval gave a very well executed drawing of a
female under the name intermedia,
and altough Őénétriés
presented a depiction of a male, the image was very poorly rendered; therefore
it seems appropriate once again to moffer a correct representation of a male ...
from the southern part of the Irkutsk Distr..Ľ Thus, confirming the correctness
of Boisduval, N. Erschoff succesfully defendede also the status of the name ichnea. This achievement wasnít taken into account by later
Euphydyas iduna (Dalman, 1816).
butterflies from the N. Siberia resemble the ssp. iduna. The taxon inexpectata
Sheljuzhko, 1934 has been mentioned previously [Korshunov, 1970,
1972, Mrácek, 1989] in connection with Srednekolymsk, but this was due to
an incorrest interpretation of the information of L. Higgins. The taxon of L.
Sheljuzhko has no relation to Siberia, since it was described from the Caucasus.
The ssp. sajana
Higgins, 1950 is widerspread in the
mountains of the S. Siberia, which differs from the nominotypical ssp. by the
noticeable reduction of the black pattern. The discal black spot is absent on
the FW, the zone of the light background is enlarged. From below the black veins
are less clear, the UNS look pale.
the information regarding two new ssp., see below.
translations of original descriptions:
Euphydryas iduna semenovi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1996
Kuznetski Upland is inhabited by bright butterflies almost twice larger tan E. iduna sajana Higgins,
1950, the females being larger than males. Among them the pecimens occur
with a darker pattern, alike ab. sulitelmica
Schultz, 1906. These large
butterflies are designated here as E.
iduna semenovi Korshunov et Ivonin, ssp. n.
a female. FWl. 24 mm. The pattern is as in the main form, but light elements are
more distinct and the dusting with dark scales is diminished on them. There are
small dark spots at the vein ends.
a male. FWl. 20 mm. The light elements of the pattern above are dusted with grey
and dark scales, especially at the fulvous band. The light elements from below
are like in females.
The holotype: ♀ ― 14.7.1975, Khakasia, surroundings of the mountain
Bobrovaya, a stream being a tributary of the Sarala River (Yu. Korshunov). The
allotype: ♂ - 7.07.1975, the same locality, on a dandelion inflorescence.
Paratypes: 47 ♂♂, 15 ♀♀ - 7- 14.07.1975, the same
locality; 5 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 30.06-9.07.1996, the Kedrovaya
River Valley at the mountain Chemodan; 8 ♂♂, 1 ♀♀,
4.07.1996, the valley of the Krasnaya Rechka River, a tributary of the Srednyaya
Tersí River; 5 ♂♂ 3 ♀♀ Ė 5.07.1996, the mountains
Stanovoi Khrebet [not to confuse with homonymic mountain range in Zabaikalye]; 1
♂ - 6.07.1996, a lake at the mountain Medvezhya; 1 ♂ 1 ♂ - 8
and 10.07.196, meadows at the mountains Chemodan and Lysaya (V. Ivonin). In
general, the butterflies prefer meadows with Viola
altaica on mountains slopes and at screes. They were noticed to feed on
the flowers of Valeriana, Bistorta
bistorta, Ranunculus, Taraxacum,
rarely on Umbelliferae.
ssp. is dedicated to the memory of our teacher Semenov, Boris Sergeevich, which
collected Lepidoptera in these places in the 20ís and discovered Damora
sagana in the Tersí River basin. For a long time he was a head of the
Nature division of the Novosibirsk Museum of Local Lore.Ē
Euphydryas iduna alferakyi Korshunov, 1996
butterflies differ from others. They look motley, differ from the typical ones
by clear white and brick-red spots on both wing sides being larger in size. We
name them Euphydryas
iduna alferakyi Korshunov, ssp. n.
a male. FWl. 19 mm. There is a transversal band of black scales on the white
field on the UPS. The wing undesride have a contrasted pattern, characteristic
to the sp., and black veins.
a female. FWl. 23 mm. Close to the male in the pattern and colouration but has
more black scales on the white areas on the UPS.
The holotype: ♂ - 21.06.1985, E Yakutia, 18 km NEE of the settlement
Khandyga, the Khandyga River headwaters (V. Dubatolov). The allotype: ♀,
12.06.1985, E. Yakutia, the Aldan River, Khandyga, a damp clearing in a larch
forest (V. Dubatolov). Paratypes: 2 ♂, 26.06.1971, the settlement Argatakh
on the Srednekolymskii Distr. of Yakutia (P. Polyakova); 2 ♂ 1 ♀,
16.06 - 15.07.1973 and 1 ♀- 20.06.1979, the Iníyali River headwaters,
Yakutia (N. N. Vinokurov); 4 ♂♂ - 12.06.1985, the Aldan River; 11
♂♂ 5 ♀♀ - 21.06 Ė 17.07.1985, the Khandyga River
headwaters; 7 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀ - 5-20.07.1985, the Suntar River
low reaches, the Indigirka River basin; 8 ♂♂ 3 ♀♀ -
17-18.07.1985, the Kyubyume River, the Indigirka basin (V. Dubatolov); 1 ♂
- 30.06.1985 Ė- the Suntar-Khayata mountain range, the mountain Baranya (L.
Popova); 1 ♂ - 15.07.1990, E Yakutia, the Myurale River headwaters (M.
ssp. is named in honour of Sergey Nokolaevich Alferaky (1850-1918), an author of
works about Siberia and of a great number of taxa.Ľ
Novosibirsk, 1996, pp. 24-25.
Melitaea athalia (Rottemburg, 1775)
the butterflies from the mountains of the S. Siberia the black pattern is (on
the average) more extended; they were described from C. Altai as reticulata
Higgins, 1955, from the
vicinity of Irkutsk as tinica
Fruhstorfer, 1910. The
Dubatolov, 1997 [Far Eastern Entomologist, 44, April, p. 8, f. 18-20] was
described on the basis of the materials from the Magadan Distr. and from
Kamchatka. All such butterflies from the southern Far East were considered
formerly as athalia, but it is now necessary to consider them as ŗmbigua.
For athalia in Primorye from
the Suchan Mine the form asiae
Verity, 1940 was
described. L. G. Higgins [Higgins, 1955: 27] found that their genital apparatus
is the same as of the specimens from the Alps, and has expressed his doubt in
the correctnes of the labels.
Mellicta athalia hyperborea Dubatolov, 1997 (fig. 1,
Dubatolov, ssp. n.
Holotype: ♂, Magadanskaya oblastí, settlement Verkhnii Seimchan [Upper
Seimchan], 19.VI 1966 (Polyakova). Paratypes: 2 males, the same locality, 22. VI
1966 (Polyakova); 2 ♀♀, Magadanskaya oblastí, the upper flow of
the Kolyma River, the Bolíshoi Annachag [Great Annachag] Mountain Range, near
the Aborigen peak, 11.VIII 1986 (Dubatolov); ♀, Kamchatka, Kozyrevsk,
2.VII 1971 (Efremova).
FWl.: males 14-15 mm, females 15-19 mm, so butterflies are considerably smaller
than the Siberian M.
a. reticulala Higgins, 1955 (FWl 16.5-20 mm, in 19-22 mm in females).
The UPS is relatively dark, especially in the holotype (fig. 18). The FW has
only one distinct dark-red spot at the cell apex. Distally from it there are 4
rows of dark-red spots: 2 proximal rows are separated between R stem and the
vein M3 and are joint below the vein
M to the vein CuP.
Submarginal row of spots is complete, the marginal one is developed up to the
vein A, the UPH has a small dark-red spot in the cell apex and only 2 rows of
dark-red spots in the external part of the wing. Two spots of the proximal row
between veins M1 and M3 are accompanied by obscure dark-red spots; the marginal
row is not expressed in the hololype, but visible in some paratypes. The pattern
of the UNS is as in M.
a. reticulata. Genitalia are similar to M. a. reticulata (Figs 19-20).
Russia: Magadanskya oblastí, Kamchatka.
The UPS of M. a. hyperborea is strongly darkened and not evenly chequered, all
dark-red spots in males and often in females are diminished. M.
a. reticulata from South Siberian mountains and North Zabaikalye have
dark-red spots well distinct, thus the UPS is almost evenly chequered.
Far East. Entomol., 1997, p. 8, Figs
Melitaea menetriesi Caradja, 1895.
The ssp. centralasiae Wnukowsky, 1929 (pro mongolica Staudinger, 1892 from TS: Kentei) in the mountains of the S. Siberia and in the C. Yakutia. The butterflies of the ssp. kolymskya Higgins, 1955 from the northern E. Siberia have smaller sizes, they have extended light spots on the UNH. The Kamchatka ssp. menetriesi (instead of orientalis Ménétriés, 1859) represents the butterflies whose UNH have whitish spots along the entire exterior border and enlarged black spots in the postdiscal area. Similar specimens are also found in the Őŗgadan Distr. (v. Őŗdŗun).
butterflies from the Upper Priobíye has been described as Melitaea menetriesi
in Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1,
of the original description:
Dubatolov, ssp. n.
Priobíye (the Upper Ob basin). FWl. 14-19 mm. Externally little butterflies
differ from the subspeceis from the South Siberian mountains, resemble also aurelia.
The main feature istegumen in aurelia
without distinct teeth, in westsibirica
the teeth are long, while aedeagus has at the apex a transparent prominence
bearing an upwards curved processus, as in aurelia.
These butterflies occur sympatrically at Karasuk and southwards, in the Altaiski
Holotype - ♂, 29.06.1957, the village Novyi Sharap of Ordynskii Distr. of
Novosibirsk Distr. (Y. Korshunov). Paratypes -3 ♂, 22.06.1958, 25.06.1959,
the same label, ♀,17.06.1982, village Acha of Bolotninskii Distr. of
Novosibirsk Distr. (Y. Korshunov), ♂, 8.06.1994, village Nizhnii Koen of
Iskitim Distr. of Novosibirsk Distr. (V. Ivonin)Ľ.
Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p.
Melitaea rebeli Wnukowsky, 1929
Dubatolovís decision [Dubatolov, Kosterin, 1999] to attach rebeli to menetriesi
with a reference to ęa complicated gamut of changesĽ is done without reference
to any concrete facts and without taking into account that rebeli
pertains to the asteria-group.
Melitaea plotina Bremer, 1861.
butterflies from Salair and Bugotak Sopkas are described as the ssp.
Mellicta plotina standeli Dubatolov, 1997 (fig. 1,
plotina standeli Dubatolov, ssp. n.
Holotype: ♂, SE environs of Novosibirsk, 5-6 km SE of Akademgorodok, the
valley of the Shadrikha rivulet, 1.5 km upstream of the village Melínichikha
(= Shadrikha), 12.VII 1992 (Dubatolov). Paratypes: ♂, the same locality,
11.VII 1992 (Kosterin); 4 ♂♂ 1 ♀, the same locality, 29.VI
1994 (Dubatolov, Zintshenko); 2 males 3 ♀♀, Novosibirskaya
oblastí, Iskitim region, near Elbashi village, a valley of the rivulet, being
a right tributary of the Bolshoi Elbash River, 11.VII 1992 (Zintshenko);
♂, the same locality, 11.VII 1993 (Kosterin).
FWl.: males 13-15 mm, females 14.5-16 mm. FW of the holotype is blackish-brown
with 3 rows of dark-red spots in external part. The external row consists of
small spots, the second and third ones consist of spots in several times larger.
Proximal to these rows, near the discal vein and behind it, there are several
dark-red spots, as in a nominative ssp. There are no spots at the base of the
cell (a small spot is visible in some paratypes). UPH with 3 rows of dark-red
spots, the external one consists of small spots, two others have the spots
several times larger. Distal half of the cell with 3 dark-red spots arranged in
a row. Underside of both wings have a pattern similar to that of the
nominotypical ssp. Female wing pattern consists of a wider dark-red spots. The
black crescent spots between marginal and submargmal dark-red spots are narrow,
noticeably narrower than the adjoining dark-red spots.
Russia: the eastern part of Novosibirskaya oblastí and Altaiskii krai
(Soldatovo on Obí River, 100 km of Barnaul).
The new ssp. differs from the Far Eastern M. p. phtina (Bremer,
1861) (= M. ussurica Verity, 1932)
by smaller size (FWl. in M.
p. plotina male 15-17.5 mm, female 16-18 mm). UPH of the male M.
p. standeli has the second and the third (starting from the margin) rows
of dark-red spots similar in size and relatively large, sometimes the spots of
the second one are even larger than those of the third, the external one
consists of small spots (Fig. 16). Sometimes the spots of the second row are
larger than those of the third one. In M.
p. plotia UPH has two external rows consisting of small spots, and only
the third one - of large spots (Fig. 17). This character is distinctly visible
on the colour table Bremer, 1864: t. 3, fig. 2) as well as in specimens studied
by me from Primorskii krai. UPH of female M. p. standeli has the black crescent spots between the marginal
and submarginal dark-red spots narrow, noticeably narrower than the adjoining
spots: in females of M.
p. plolma these crescent spots are wide, equal or wider than the
adjoining dark-red spots. Untortunately, I have not possibility to compare
specimens of M. plotina from
Novosibirsk with those from Troitskosavsk (now Kyakhta, Zabaikalye), type
locality of M. pacifica Verity, 1932. I have not found Zabaikalyen specimens
in any available collection. Nevertheless, isolation of the Upper Obian
population (M. p. standeli) from the Zabaikalyen (M. p. pacifica) and the
Far Eastern ones (M. p. plotina) is the main reason to describe a new ssp.
Isolation of Far Eastern, Zabaikalyen and West Siberian populations of some
palaearchaearctic sp. have been discussed earlier and was connected with a
presence of relict nemoral elements in flora and fauna of these territories
(Dubatolov & Zolotarenko, 1996).
ssp. were observed on damp meadows with tussocks, the reed (Phragmites australis), and sparse willow bushes in swampv
valleys of small rivulets, and on adjacent forb meadows. The males fly above
vegetation under sunny weather, and disappear when the sun hides. Feeding of a
butterfly on an inflorescence of Leucanthemum
vulgare was observed by Dr. O. E. Kosterin.
The ssp. is dedicated to Mr A. E. Standel, who has firstly found this East Asian
sp. in the east part of Novosibirskaya oblastí (Standel, I960) on the
Salairskii Kryazh elevation near village Ustí-Travyanka between villages
Maslyanino and SuengaĽ.
Far East. Entomol., 1997, pp. 6-8, Fig
the S. Zabaikalye, Malkhanski Mt. Range, Melitaea
1932 (TS Ė Chikoy R.) was described as a sp., but Higgins
[Higgins, 1955] determined it to be a synonym to plotina.
Probably, it can more correctly be deemed a ssp. of plotina.
Then the ssp. of pacifica
from the Suchan Mine in Primorye was described as ussuriae Verity, 1932. It
may simple be a synonym of plotina.
Melitaea latonigena Eversmann, 1847.
exact area for latonigena in E. Siberia
remaind to be specified. The butterflies were described from the basin of the
Yana R. as polaris Grum-Grshimailo,
1899. They are very similar to latonigena.
The variation M.
1893 was described on the basis of specimens gathered by of M.
Suvortzev near the Lake Marka-Kulí. In his review of 1941 Higgins assigned it
assuming that all butterflies from Altai up to Zabaikalye and Khaptagai Mt.
Range in Mongolia pertain to altaica.
The reason is simple: there are no special differences between both altaica as latonigena.
As a matter of fact these taxa are synonymous. Furthermore, the typical place
from the Irkutsk Distr.was read as ęKenteiĽ for no clear reason. As a result,
the butterflies from various locales in mountains of the S. Siberia have not
been investigated seriously, and the material on this subject is still to be
collected. The only described as atrata
Higgins, 1935 specimen
comes from Tunkinskye goltsy (ęTurkinsk Weissberge, 2000 m, JulyĽ in the
original). It is smaller than latonigena
and has a strongly developed black pattern (males and females). The information
about an isolated population of latonigena in the Ukok Plateau in the basin of the Kulguta River
is presented below.
latonigena ukoka Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1,
of the original description:
data are given about an isolated population of latonigena on the Ukok Plateau (SE Altai) in the Kalguty River
basin. In extremal conditions of highland biotopes among bunch-grass tundras on
a height above 2000 m. A. V. Bondarenko found out more than two dozens of
specimens which we name here M.
latonigena ukoka Korshunov,
ssp. n. Males differ by a partial reduction of black pattern,
females by a distinct black chequered pattern on the light ground colour.
A male of 11.07.1997, FWl. 17 mm, from black spots on FW well developed are the
marginal ones, at a light fringe and next it, and then only in the middle of the
wing close to the base. Thus, the outer field lacks spots completely, while in
all other forms of latonigena
this area of the wing has either black dots between the veins or even dots fused
into a chain, as in atrata.
In one paratypical male the central row of spots is also not expressed.
Female of 11.07.1997. FWl. 18 mm, on a chequered pattern of FW a light spot in
the cell, situated basally of discal vein, is distinct. It is quadrangular, in
some paratypes of different shape, but invariably well expressed. In the
allotype on the UPH several plates, situated closer to the fore edge, are
orange-coloured, in paratypes some parts of the FW also have the same colour.
Pattern of the UNS is of latonigenaís
specimens of the Ukok there are several aberrant females in which the UPS is
entirely or partly black and on the UNS with a black pattern developed in basal
area. In the whole the type series
embraces three males and seven females, with FWl. 16-20 mm. Besides, I have
enumerated similar butterflies from the collecctions of R. Yakovlev and V.
Doroshkin, also from the Ukok Plateau. 5 females, 5 males ― 14.07.1994,
1.07 and 5.07.1995, 25.06.1996, 10 and 15 km S of village Dzhazator, 2200 m; 4
female and 35 males - 3.07.1997, mountain Mai-Tobe, 2600 m; 2 females and 18
males - 10-12.07.1997, middle flow of the Dzhumaly River, 2200 m.Ľ
Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p.
Melitaea didymoides Eversmann, 1847
butterflies of the nominotypical ssp. occur in “uva,
Zabaikalye and the basin of the Zeja R.
the Pacific coast flies the Manchurian ssp. latonia
Grum-Grshimailo, 1891 with a brighter
colouring. A. I. Kurentzov [Kurentzov, 1970] indicated for the extreme southern
Primorye and in the islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great a chinese ssp. pekinensis
Seitz, 1908. As he writes, the butterflies are a little bit larger with a
strong (especially in females) dark coating on the UPS inhabiting open grassy
biotopes on the sea coast. This unique testimony about the chinese ssp. requires
confirmation: it is possible that one is actually referring to M.
Melitaea trivia ([Denis et Schiffermüller], 1775) (= fascelis Esper, 1784).
butterflies of the ssp. fascelis
inhabit the western foothills of the S. Urals. From the valley of the Ural R. uvarovi
P.Gorbunov, 1995 was described. We must consider this taxon as very close to
(in the book ęDnevnye babochki Aziatskoi RossiiĽ in the ęAppendixĽ the
drawing of uvarovi
is170, not 173!). From Lake Khubsugul Lake the ssp. singularia was described.
Melitaea trivia singularia Korshunov, 1995
(fig. 1, 2)
trivia singularia Korshunov, 1995
was proposed (Dnevnye babochki,
1995, pp. 92-93) as it follows:
P. Korshunov [Korshunov, 1977: 5th iss., 668] described a peculiar
female from the surroundings of Lake Hubsugul in Mongolia. We suggest the name Melitaea
trivia singularia Korshunov, ssp. n. for such butterflies. Translation
of the cited description, which should be considered as the original description
of the ssp., is follwoing: ęMelitaea
trivia Denis et Schiffermüller,
1775, ?ssp. n. Hubs[ugul Aimak]: Lake Hubsugul, 26 VI (D). [V. Ch.
Dorogostaiskii], 1 ♀. It differs from the typical form by light and motley
pattern, the wings somewhat elongate. Generally the habitus resemble that of M.
t. ignasiti Sagarra, 1926. Probably, it belongs to a new ssp.
The palpi are covered with yellow hairs. The FWl. is 18 mm. The UPS is
pale-fulvous, motley since black dots are small and well contrasted. On the UNH
the black streaks are narrow, do not contact completely to the fulvous band. The
middle field is light-yellow not differing in colour from the basal and outer
parts. There are two rows of four irregular black spots (dots) going from the
fore margin to the cell in the middle field. The genitalia are close to those in
the typical form.Ľ
Damora sagana (Doubleday, 1847) (= paulina Nordmann, 1851) (fig. 1, 2)
male of sagana from China was
originally described in 1847. This sp. was indicated also for Priamurye,
Primorye, Corea and Japan in 1901 [Staudinger, Rebel, 1901] But a female of this
sp. was yet described in 1851 by A. Nordmann [Nordmann, 1851] as Damora
Nordmann wrote that ďan unique perfectly preserved specimen was caught by Dr
Gebler in 1826 in environs of Irkutsk and was sent to Petersburg to Dr
HenningĒ. So the place of capture was indicated precisely, but it was not
token into account in Staudingerís catalogue. It was considered since longtime
doesnít occur to th west of Priamurye. A mistake was made in our publication
[Korshunov, 1970]; ď11 spec.Ē were indicated in place of ď1 spec. from
GeblerĒ. Nordmannís information was token in account only by N. Ya.
Kuznetzov, who indicated this sp. for Zabaikalye in Lampertís atlas [Lampert,
1913]. L. Krulikowski [Krulikowski, 1916] indicated sagana for Ustí-Maya in Yakutia in 1915.
western part of the area of sagana
was determined during the period1910―1935. A. A. Meinhard caught first two
males at 18 and 22.06.1910 near ŗshtak in the vicinity of Tomsk on a blossoming Carduus; the females were caught only in 1912 in a considerable
population at the siding Suranov located in 27 versts from the Taiga Station.
Later publications adduced the evidence from the vicinity of the villages
Mezheninovka, Konevaya as well as from Kuznetsk Alatau and the vicinity of
1915, Semenov, 1922, Wnukowski, 1926, 1935]. There is a note by S. D. Lavrov
[Lavrov, 1922: 68] that one of the butterflies that he caught near the village
Ekaterinenskoe near the Irtysh R. near Urozai was very similar to sagana.
This supposition and the exact facts were forgotten for 50 years, when the note
about ę a unexpected determinationĒ of this sp. in Kuzbass under Targai has
appeared [Standel, 1951]. Later butterflies were caught at Suenga on Salair, at
the Lake Teletskoe and headwaters of the Bija River, in neighbourhood of v..
Tshoja, NE grom Gorno-Altajsk. In 50-60 years sagana was found out in
Tjazhin Reg. of the Kemerovo Distr., to the north of Krasnoyarsks in the
neighbourhood of v. Sutyagi and even on the 58į N. latitude at the headwater of
the Ketí River. In the Kemerovo Distr. this butterfly was caught recently in
area near the. v. Kuzedeevo, among many specimens one was found out by us on one
of anonymous left inflows of Mras-Su River and in the valley of this river near
its ostium. A new point of the determination of the sp. on the inflow of Yenisei
(Sisim River) on the average current (a male specimen caught by D. M. Pupavkin
is stored in the funds of the ZÓÓlogical
Museum) The recent materials are from Suzunski Bor (V. Ivonin), the basin of
Berd R. (A. Chernyshov) in Novosibirsk Distr.
nominotypical ssp. is found in China. In Primorye dwells the ssp. liane
Fruhstorfer, 1907, the closest to the nominotypical one. In the western
part of the area, from the Upper Priobje up to the basin of the Yenissei R.
incl. we find the ssp.relicta.
Eastwards near Baikal, in Mongolia, Priamurye occurs the ssp. nordmanni,
see their description below.
Argynnis sagana relicta Korshunov, 1984 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
of original description:
ęArgynnis sagana relicta Korshunov, ssp. n.
FWl. 34 mm. The UPS are deeply ginger with large bright black spots. The
disposition of the black spots and stripes is identical to typical formís one.
The UNS are brown-reddish. The disposition and shape of the black spots on the
UPS are similar to Chinese formís ones, but they are brighter. The HW have an
intensive violet dusting in the outer zone, esp. in itís inner side, the basal
zone is monochrome.
FWl. 36 mm. The wing colouring is dimmer than that of another forms. The white
transversal band on the UNH is ca. 1 mm narrower, than that of the following
ssp., the apple-green spots behind the green band are hardly seen; the other
features of the pattern are similar to the rest of the sp. The outer edge of the
FW has no noticeable hollow.
Holotype ― ♂, 5/VII 1978, Mountain Shoria, taiga in valley of a
brook, a tributary of Mras-Su riv. near its mouth, allotype ― ♀,
5/VII 1950, Kemerovski distr., environs of v. Targai (Standel). Paratypes
― 1 ♂, 15/VIII, Altai, 5 km to the east from v. Choya, 1 ♂,
5/VII 1957, v. Danilovka, Kemerovski distr. (Lekhner, Solovyeva), 1 ♂,
25/VII 1957, ibid., fir-spruce forest (Krivolutskaya), 1 ♀, 4-5/VIII 1957,
ibid. (Lekhner, Solovyeva), 2 ♂♂, 14, 16/VII 1958, Tyazhinski
Leskhoz, Kemerovski distr. (Grigoryev), 1 ♀, 23/VIII 1958, Krasnoyarski
distr., the 65th block of the forest dacha near Tyazhinski Leskhoz
(Grigoryev), 1 ♀, 23.08 1958, Krasnoyarsk distr., quarter 65 in the forest
dacha near Tjazhinskyi leskhoz (Grigoryev); 1 ♀, 07.1966, v. Sutyagi, “ŗsŚŚvski reg., Krasnoyarski krai (Lostshinskyi); 1 ♀, 24.08 1970, v.
Makovskoe in the head of Ketí r. (ŐÓrdkovitsh); 1 female, 6.07 1975, the right bank of Mras-Su r., Myski;l
1♂, end of June ― beginning of July 1976, v. Podkatuní, 18 kms
from Mundybash (Pantshenko); 1 ♀, 07.1976, near the v. Kameshok,
Mezhduretchensk reg., Kemerovski distr. (Mertvetzov); 2 ♂♂, 5.07,
10.08 1977, there (Mertvetzov); 15 males, 4-5.07 1978, Kemerovo Distr., Mountain
Shoria, taiga, in a valley stream of inflow Mras-Su r. near of an ostium and on
Mras-Su r. (Korshunov); 1 ♂, 2.07 1981, Krasnoyarsk distr., East Sayan,
middle current of the Sisim r. (Siltshenko).
Argynnis sagana nordmanni Korshunov, 1984 (fig.
of the original description:
ďArgynnis sagana nordmanni Korshunov, subsp. n.
a male. FW l. 32 mm. UPS are light-red, the black spots and stripes have typical
for this sp. size and shape. The UNS are light-yellow, the outer zone of
hindwings is light-violet, the basal zone bears a light triangular spot.
a female. FWl. 35 mm. The UPS are bright-coloured. The white tranversal band on
the UNH is wide, like this of the nominotypical form, the apple-green spots
beyond the green band are well distinct. The outer edge of the FW has a
Holotype ― ♂, 6/VII 1974, Zeya r. valley,
Blagoveshchensk―Moskvitino reg. Allotype ― ♀, 8/VII 1965, env.
of Khabarovsk. Paratypes ― 1 ♂, 22/VII 1961, Shishlino, Ivolginski
reg., Buryat ASSR (Orlov), 1 ♀ 3 ♂♂, 3, 4 and 11/VII, 6/VIII
1962, Gonzha, Amur distr, (Isaev), 1 ♀, 9/VIII 1976, Mongolia,
Numregin-Gol r., 32 km SE from Salkhit t. (Kozlov).
New sp., Novosibirsk, 1984, iss. , pp.
58-61, f. 1-2.
Proclossiana eunomia (Esper, 1787) (= aphirape Hübner, 1799)
extends as far east as the M. and S. Zauralye. There were peculiar populations
in ęriamyĽ (wooded swamps) in the Novosibirsk Region. The new ssp. is called riamia.
Proclossiana eunomia riamia Korshunov et Ivonin, 1998 (fig. 1,
translation of the original description:
turned out populations of the ryams [loc. raised peat-moss bogs within the
forest-steppe zone] of the Novosibirsk Distr. Imagines keep there to Eriophorum
and Ledum, often resting on
their leaves and pine needles, they are active both in sunny and overcast
weather. The butterflies of ryams are large, FWl.is not less than 18 mm, more
frequently 20 mm. The brick-red individuals are rather melanized, the spots of
the black pattern is enlarged, wing margins are black-rimmed on which blueish
spots are scarcely seen. On the UNH ocelli and light spots are bright
silvery-blueish-white, many specimens of the same colour have spots of marginal
row on the UNH. Note that such butterflies were met with still by the expedition
by N. F. Kastshenko on 8th June 1899 in a ďryamĒ at the station
Ubinskaya where more than 30 specimens were captured. A. A. Meinhard [Meinhard,
1905] in his ęList VIĽ did not give them a special name but noted a dark
ground colour and large and fusing with each other black spots and bands on the
UPS and a very bright reddish-brown colour of the UNH with conspicuously large
spots with a strong silvery-nacreous glittering. Among 30 specimens two had ęunusually
dark colourationĽ and five had a more light one, closer to the typical eunomia. The new ssp. was titled riamia Korshunov
et Ivonin, ssp. n.:
Holotype - ♂, 17.06.1997, Kamennyi Ryam at v. Kuznetskoe of the Chulymskii
Distr. of Novosibirsk Distr. (V. Ivonin), allotype - ♀, 17.06.1997, the
same locality. Paratypes Ė two ♂, 17.06.1962, a ryam at v. Kaily of the
former Mikhailovskii (now Ubinskii) Distr. (Y. Korshunov), one ♀, seven
♂ Ė 17.06.1997, Kamennyi Ryam, 26.06.1997, the same locality.Ľ
Clossiana eunomia stromi Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1,
of the original description:
turned out that in the mountains of the S. Siberia there occur two ssp. For the
Altais, Sayans, Tuva and adjacent parts of Mongolia a new ssp. stromi Korshunov, ssp. n. is described (in honour of Semen
Aronovich Strom [1906-1985], my main expedition teacher, a head of the youth
geographical society ęSibiriaĽ in Novosibirsk). Being different from acidalia,
this butterflies lack the silvery-white colour on the UNS. From the
nominotypical one they differ by a smaller size (the FW are usually less than 20
mm), they have a finer black pattern, especially in males. At last, stromi
iz characterized by a presence of a large ochre-red spot (or also a small one
near it) at basal darkening of the UPH. On the UNH, the colour of rather small
ocelli does not differ from that of all other light spots (light salad-coloured
or slightly yellowish). These light spots are surrounded with ochre scales.
Holotype - ♂, 24.07.1975, W Sayan, Pazyryk-Ergak-Taiga mt. range, 1st
brook behind the pass [from which side remains unclear] (Y. Korshunov), allotype
- ♀, the same label. Paratypes - ♂, 23.07.1948, Tuva, W Tannu-Ola
(A. I. Cherepanov), ♀ 9.07.1954, Altai, v. Abai, 2 ♂♂,
14.07.1959, Chuiskaya Stepí, the Yustyd River at v. Ak-Tal, 2 ♂♂
and 2 ♀♀, 19.07.1963, by the village to Ustí-Ulagan (O.
Ivanovskaya), ♂, 6.07.1966, the Mezhtyyaryk River - a tributary of the
Chuya, 1700 m (A. E. Standel), ♂, 7.07.1966, Altai, mountain Supor at
Chagan-Uzun, 2600 m (A. E. Standel), ♂, 70 km SE of Lake Dood-Nur, 2000 m,
Mongolia (V. Solyanikov), ♀, 21.07.1972, Tuva, lake Kara-Kholí, ♂,
5.07.1976, Altai, Seminskii Pass, two ♂♂, 16.07.1982, Altai,
♂, 11.07.1983, Katunskii mt. range, stow Bertkhem, 15 km SW of Katanda (V.
Dubatolov), ♂ and ♀, 13.07.1983, 15 km SW of Katanda, a pass between
the Kuragan and Kucherla Rivers, Tukura, 2400 m (V. Dubatolov), ♂ and two
♀♀, 20-21.07.1983, Terektinskii mt. range, 10 km N of Katanda,
highlands, 2500 m (V. Dubatolov), ♂, 12.07.1987, Lake Teletskoe, mountain
Kolyshtu (A. Barkalov), ♂, 16.06.1987, Tuva, Todzha, Lake Azas (V.
Zinchenko), 2 ♂♂, 25-29.06.1991, Sayano-Shushenskii Reservation, the
Ak-Sug River headwaters and the Ala-Aya River middle flow (V. A. Vagin).
in the mountains of Siberia, Yakutia and in the northern Far East there ranges
the ssp. acidalia Böber, 1809
Staudinger, 1901) described from Pribaikalye, which differs from the
nominotypical one by a smaller size, a black pattern closer to ossiana,
as well as by the UNS with expressed silvery-white spots. As to the northern
Herbst, 1800 proper, it embraces small butterflies with the ocelli always
differing in colour from the background (light or silvery tinted) and extends at
least as far as the latitudes of Taimyr.Ľ
Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p.
Clossiana oscarus (Eversmann, 1844)
Matsumura, 1908 (Hori, Tamanuki, 1937) ÓÚŪÓŮŤÚŮˇ
ŮŽŚšůŚÚ ŮųŤÚŗÚŁ ŪŗÁ‚ŗŪŤŚž ŮŗűŗŽŤŪŮÍÓ„Ó
the Bureyan Mts. and the lower Amur are inhabited by the nominotypical ssp.
Closely related is the ssp. oscaroides
described from Yakutia, with larger black spots on the UNS. In the M. Priamurye
and in Primorye we find the ssp. australis
Graeser, 1888 (TL
Vladivostok), represented by large butterflies with bright markings.
Matsumura, 1936 should apply to iphigenia,
thus the name insularia
Korshunov, 1996 must be considered as the name of the Sakhalin ssp. of iphigenia.
Clossiana chariclea (Schneider, 1794)
major part of Siberia is inhabited by the nominotiypical ssp. On Chukotka and
Kamchatka flies the ssp. tshuktsha.
Clossiana chariclea tshuktsha Dubatolov et Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1,
translation of the original description:
Chukotka and Kamchatka there is ssp. tshuktsha
Dubatolov et Korshunov, ssp. n. In general it resembles butleri
by colouration but well differs by the male genital structure. In the new ssp.
the outer area of the UNH is evenly red-brown, in males a yellow colour presents
only in some specimens, between veins M2 and CuA outside of dark postdiscal
spots. The fore apical processus of the valva is shortened, no longer than the
lower one (in butleri
this processus is very short and more stout).
Holotype - ♂, 2?.07.1986, 100 km S of Pevek, E Chukotka, Ustí-Chaun
(Dubatolov, Zinchenko). Paratypes - 12 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀, the
same locality, 25.07-2.08.1986 (Dubatolov, Zinchenko).
fact that specimens of a new ssp. in general have the genitalia intermediate
between chariclea and butleri
gives a reason to consider butleri
W. H. Edwards, 1883 as a ssp. of a circumpolar chariclea.Ľ
Dopolnenye 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p.
Clossiana erda (Christoph, 1893)
Belik, 1996 [(Phegea 24(4), 1.XII.1996: 163-166, plate 2] was
described from the itoiski
Goltsy (E. Sajan) Ė four rather dark specimens
Clossiana erda kitoica Belik, 1996
erda kitoica ssp. n.
material. Holotype ― a male, Russia, Vostochny Sayan mountains, khrebet
(Mountain Range) Kitoiskiye Golítsy, upperstream of the Kitoi R., vicinity of
lhe Lake Ilíchir, 2350 m. 26.VI.1994, A. G. Belik leg. Paratypes: 3 females,
the same locality as holotype, 26.VI and 30.VI.1994, A. G. Belik leg.
(plate 2., figs 1-2), holotype: FWl 23.0 mm.
the ground colour is dull ochre-orange, all elements of black wing pattern are
very distinct, the elements of the discal row are united into a band. Basal area
is thickly dusted with dark scales. The Holotype is worn, therefore the fringes
the ground colour is as on the UPF, all the black markings are very distinct.
The spots of the discal row form a continuous black band. The space from the
wing basis up to this band is very dark, covered with black scales that almost
conceal the ground colour. A characteristic solid black strip in the discal cell
remains well visible.
looks paler than the upperside because of less distinct black pattern. The area
at the apex is yellowish.
the basal area is dark-brown, with silvery-white spots dusted with black scales.
The median band is silvery-white, intersected by veins dusted with dark brown
scales. In cells from 2A to the ventral margin this band is intensively dusted
with dark brown and black scales. Distally the median band is bordered with a
fine black line and a dark brown discal band. Postdiscal area immediately distad
to the discal band silvery-while, but distad to the postdiscal row of black
spots it is dull ochre-orange. Black triangular spots of the submarginal row are
linked with outer edge of the wing by silvery-white spots. the outer margin is
bordered with a marginal band consisting of two fine black lines.
(fig. 6): attribution of this ssp. to Clossiana
erda is confirmed by the structure of the male genitalia. They are
almost the same as in the nominotypical ssp. (fig. 7). The long superior process
of the valva is bulged in its distal end. But the bulge is directed not so
frankly ventrally as in C.
(plate 2, figs 3-6). average FWl is 24.3 mm (range 24.0-25.0 mm). UPF: as in
male, but the ground colour is paler, the elements of black pattern are even
more enlarged and the whole wing is covered with black diffuse scales. General
appearance of the wings is much darker than in male. Fringes are checquered with
black as in other Clossiana sp.
as in male. with the same modification as on the UPF. The Area from the wing
base up to discal black band is almost completely black because of solid
covering with diffuse black scales. Fringes are like on the FW. The UNF and UNH
are like in male.Ľ
Wyatt, 1961 from Chukotka is cited as a subsecies; it differs from
the nominotypical ssp. by virtue of the reduction of the black coating of the
UPS, which consequently is brighter. The submarginal black spots on the FW are
diminished and the middle ones are larger. On the UNH the outer part of the
middle band is dark, almost black, whereas the inner band is lighter.
As was determined in Vladivostok by V. Dubatolov, the holotype, the male of the
taxon dulkeiti Kurentzov,
1970, is a specimen of erda,
whereas the female belongs to the astarte-group.
Clossiana tritonia (Böber, 1812) (= elatus (Staudinger, 1892)
the Malkhanski Mt. Range in Zabaikalye the butterflies of this kind are
described as elatus
Staudinger, 1892; we suppose that this title is synonymous to tritonia.
Clossiana amphilochus (Ménétriés, 1857)
Siberian sp. has several ssp. See below for the texts of original descriptions
the the Uralian ssp. machati
(butterflies are indicated for the basin of the Sob r., for the Raj-Iz range
(The Red Book JaNAD, 1997), at the Khamar-Daban ssp. dubatolovi, of the
Yakutian ssp. ershovi and the ssp. suntara.
In Chukotka we find the smallest ssp. tschukotkensis Wyatt, 1961; of butterflies with an intensive
black-scale-coating, especially in the root parts of wings. As can be seen,
these titles were cited earlier together with the American ŗstarte
and distincta, but a
comparison of the butterflies indicates an appreciable difference between them
not so much on the pattern, as on the parts of the genital apparatus (the
difference in genitalia is present between distincta
and astarte, too). We support
the priority of Őénétriés.
Clossiana amphilochus machati] Korshunov, 1987
of original description:
[distincta] machati Korshunov subsp. n.
FWL. 23 mm, in the paratype 22 mm. The UPS are fulvous-yellow, with large,
slightly diffuse black spots. In general ,by colouration it is much more even
and substantially lighter than in C.
distincta tschukotkensis Wyatt, 1961. The UPH from base up to the outer
field is darkened, in the central zone fulvous spots are distinct, the discal
streak is well distinct. The UNS are fulvous-yellow. There are diffuse blackish
spots on an even ground colour on the FW. On the HW the discal band is well
outlined and rimmed dy a group of dense fulvous scales. Dark dots on outer field
are distinct, close to it there are silvery lunular spots. The HW looks
bi-colour: the outer field is fulvous-yellow, the rest part of the wing is
material (in ISEA, Novosibisk): Holotype - ♂, Polar Urals, 112th
km of the railroad Seida-Labytnangi, 11/VII 1972 (V. Machat). Paratype: ♂,
the western part of the Putorana Plateau, Lake Keta environs, the Irbo-Keta
River middle flow, a stony tundra, 18/VII 1981 (D. Pupavkin)Ľ
Clossiana amphilochus dubatolovi. Korshunov,
of original description:
[distincta] dubatolovi Korshunov, ssp. n.
FWl 23 mm, in paratypes 21.5-23.5 mm. The UPS are fulvous-yellow with black
contrasted spots, as light as in C.
distincta machati sbsp. n. The UNH is less darkened but the discal
streak and yellowish spots are contrast, distinctly expressed. The UNS are
fulvous-yellow. On the FW black spots are distinct, on the HW the central band
is almost not dusted with black and fulvous scales. Other features are as in C.
[in ISEA, Novosibirsk]: Holotype - a male, Khamar-Daban Mts, 15 km S of
settlement Slyudyanka, top of the Cherskogo Peak, 2090 m above sea level, at a
scree, 21.07.1984 (V. Dubatolov). Paratypes: 2 males, the same locality, 1 male,
the Cherskogo Peak crest, 1900 m above sea level, on a scree, 23/VII 1984 (V.
seems that the analogous specimens were assumed by A. I. Kurentzov [Kurentzov,
1970)] as Brenthis astarte Doubl.Ľ
New sp., Novosibirsk, 1987, iss. 19,
pp. 11-12, f. 3.
Clossiana distincta ershovi Korshunov et P. Gorbunov, 1995 (fig. 1,
of the original description:
[astarte] ershovi Korshunov et P. Gorbunov, ssp. n.
from the Prilenskoe [near the Lena River] Plateau differ by relatively large
size (FWl. is 22-24 mm in males, 23-26 mm in females) and the pattern of the
UNH. Clossiana astarte ershovi
Korshunov et P. Gorbunov, ssp. n.
A male. FWl. 22 mm. The UPS is fulvous with an intensive black pattern; the HW
is substantially blackened in the basal half. The UNS is mottled, a row of round
black spots at the outer margin and their light rims are especially conspicuous.
On the UNH the outer half ground colour is reddish-brown; the discal band on the
HW is more mottled than in other ssp., it contain contrasted patches of whitish
and brown colour.
Holotype : ♂ - 19.06.1968, the settlement Khaptagai on the Lena River (Yu.
Ammosov). Paratypes: 2 ♂♂ - 23.06 and 11.071987, the settlement
Khaptagai, the road to Tammu (Yu. Ammosov); 2 ♀♀ - 20.07.1962,
Yakutsk, the botanical garden (Alexandrova); ♂ - 7.06.1979, the same
locality; 1♂ - 8.06.1985, the same locality (V. Dubatolov),
♀♀- 23.06.1992, the same locality (P. Gorbunov).
ssp. is dedicated to the memory of Ershov, Nokolai Grigoryevich (1837-1896), one
of the first real members of the Russian Entomological Society, the author of
numerous works and the first catalogue of the Siberian [an error Ė must be
Russian ― Yu. K.] butterflies.Ľ
Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995,
Clossiana amphilochus suntara Dubatolov, 1998 (fig. 1,
of the original description:
V. Dubatolov finds it necessary to isolate in a diferent ssp. the butterflies
which keep to rocky slopes and screes of the Suntar-Khayata mountain range. This
Dubatolov, ssp. n.
17-27 mm. The UPH have a fulvous ground colour almost prived of black scales,
therefore a pair of large postdiscal spots remain surrounded with narrow or wide
light rims. The dark rimming of the medial band is slightly darker than the UNF
Holotype - ♂, 07. 1985, E Yakutia, the Suntar-Khayata mountain range, 180
km ENE of the highway Khandyga-Magadan (Dubatolov, Barkalov, Popova).Ľ
Dopolnenye 2, Novosibirsk, 1998,
Clossiana matveevi P. Gorbunov et Korshunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2)
of the original description:
22.6-23.8 (in holotype 22.8 mm). The UPS are ochre-orange, more faded than in C.
tritonia and C. erda and similar to that
astarte. The black pattern in general corresponds to that in C.
tritonia but is rather fine; a more narrw black margin has no widening
at the veins, as is characteristic for C.
tritonia, it is one of significant differences. On the UNF the pattern
is the same as on the UPF, but the black spots are narrower and two black
parallel lines replace the margin. The UNH ground colour varies from
muddy-orange to muddy brick-red; the ground-ochre or greyish discoidal band is
relatively narrow, 2.2-2.5 mm wide at the vein M1 (in other taxa of the tritonia-group
it is not less than 2.5 mm wide), its both sides being bordered with conspicuous
black streaks, and locally it is densely dusted by dark scales, which entirely
hide it at the ventral margin. The postdiscal area contains a row of seven well
distinct whitish spots. Outside of it there is a row of six black spots and then
is placed an area of ochre-red colour 2.0-2.5 mm wide. The black bracked-shaped
submarginal spots are distally margined with white spots stretched out across
the veins; outside of them there is a double marginal line. In the male
genitalia the caudal processus of the valva ends with a single large tooth, not
with a row of small teeth as in C.
astarte and C. tritonia, the costal
processus is large, foot-shaped (see the figure in Appendix).
the holotype: ♂, Altai, the Kurayskiy mountain range, the settlement
Aktash, 2700 m above sea level, a dry scree, 8th July 1990 (E.A.
[must be E.M. - O.K.] Matveev leg.). Paratypes: two ♂♂ one ♀,
the same locality 16th July 1992; 4 ♂♂ - the Kuraiskiy
mountain range, the Yarly-Ayry river headwaers, 3000 m altitude, 7-12th
July 1992 (Yu. Prokofyev).
taxon is named in honour of Evgeni Aleksandrovich [an error: must be Evgeni
Mikhailovich] Matveev, a Moscow naturalist, a butterfly amateur, who first
collected these butterflies. Although it is not excluded that a butterfly of
this very sp. (identified by A.A. Meinhard as C. amphilochus Ménétriés)
was caught by V.V. Sapozhnikov on 6th June 1905 in the Tsagan-Kol
River headwaters in Mongolia.Ľ
Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995,
In the book by [Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov, 1994] this sp. is given as ęClossiana
Boloria altaica (Grum-Grshimailo, 1893)
new ssp. was described from the Mountanous Shoria:
Boloria altaica pustagi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1995
of the original description:
altaica pustagi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1995
the materials from the Gornaya Shoria Upland the ssp. Boloria altaica pustagi Korshunov et Ivonin, ssp.
n. is being described, differing from altaica
first of all by a darker (brick-red) ground colour.
a male. FWl. 21 mm. The UPS is brick-red with the black pattern enlarged, as
compared with the ssp. altaica.
The black spots along the outer margin are not fused into a streak. On the UNH
the discal band is bright, well contrasted to the ground brick-red background;
the black round spots in the postdiscal area are contrasted, some of them
contain white nuclei. In females the upperside is lighter, yellowish, the
underside is bright, as in males.
The holotype: ♂ Ė 13.07.1992, Gornaya Shoria, the environs of the
settlement Sheregesh, the mountain Pustag, 1000-1300 m (V. Ivonin). Paratypes: 7
♂♂, 3 ♀♀ - 13.07.1992, the same locality.Ľ
Dnevnye babochki, Novosibirsk, 1995,
nominotypical ssp. is common in the Altais, Sayans and the mountains of Tuva.
For the mountain tundras of the Verkhoyansk Range (Koktshin R.) and the Chersky
Mt. Range the ssp. vinokurovi
Dubatolov, 1992 is established on
the evidence of butterflies similar to B.
Boloria altaica vinokurovi Dubatolov,
1992 (fig. 1,
of original description:
Holotype: ♂, Yakutia, the Verkhoyanskii Mt. Range, the Nyamni River, a
left source of the Kokchin River, 20.06.1989 (Vinokrov). Paratypes: ♀, the
same locality, 20.06.1989 (Vinokurov); ♀, the same locality, the Kokchin
River 5 km S of Lake Inderkei, 12.07.1989 (Vinokurov).
FWl. 20 mm. The UPS are fulvous with a pattern characteristic for the whole
genus. The FW base ihas above a
triangular-shaped darkening extended along yhe hind margin as far as its middle.
In th central cell there are an S-like streak, two dots, an angular streak of
medial row and a discal streak. The spots of the discal row are very narrow,
strongly bow-like curved, the spot between Cu2―A is fused with a spot of
the medial row into an X-like figure. The spots of the postdiscal band are
large, much larger than in B.
n. altaica Gr.-Gr., stretched along veins and form a contiguous slightly
winding row, as it is characteristic just for B. napaea Hoffmsg. The
sumbarginal and marginal spots have no angular projection at the end of the vein
M3, which usually is present in B.
n. altaica. HW pattern is as in B.
napaea, but the discal band does not form a ledge along the vein M2. The
UNF doesnít bear any noticeable black spots. At the HW base on a dark-fulvous
area there are four light spots between vein trunks, two posterior and the fore
(costal) ones having a silvery tint. There is a silvery spot developed in the
cell centre. Colouration and shape of wide light discal band are similar to
those in B.
napaea: the hind part of the inner margin of spot brtween Sc―-Rs
reaches to vein Rs base, the forepart of the light spot at the cell apex only id
slightly shifted distally of this dot, the ledge at this dot is about twice as
shorter as in B. alaskensis nikolajewski
and other forms of B. alaskensis from Polar Siberia. On the contrary, the ledge at
the base of the vein Cu2, formed by hind part of the spot A2―Cu2 and
characteristic for so far known ssp. of B.
napaea, is almost absent in the holotype, as in B. alaskensis. Spots A2―A3 and A2―Cu2 are strongly
disjuncted in the middle. At last the hind corners of the outer margins of spots
Sc―Rs and Rs―M1 areacute, as in B.
napaea, but not blunt or rectangular, as in B. alaskensis. Outer field between discal band and large silvery
marginal spots is reddish, with brown spots between veins enlarged, the space
between M2―Cu1 is yellow. Genitalia: Ratio of length of dentate part of
harpe to its entire length equals about ½, as in B. napaea, harpe apex is
straight, not curved down, as in B.
FWl 20-21 mm. The available specimens are very dark above, darker than any B.
napaea, with a violet lustre. On the UPH a bright-fulvous is conspicuous
ab area between the discal and submarginal bands in the field Sc―M2; in B.
n. altaica this one is less bright and more diffuse. Wing pattern are as
in the male , but the spots of the discal row are wider, diffuse, forming a
X-shaped figure in the field Cu2-A extended in the middle. Pattern of the UNH
also are like in male, but in one female a weak narrow blackish spots are
developed on theUNF, whereas on the HW the spotsbetween A2―A3 and
A2―Cu2 of the discal row are
not split but have sudden narrowings, they are narrower than in B. alaskensis.
NOTES. By the majority of characters discussed in the description, the new taxon
belongs just to B.
firstly discovered in Transpolar Siberia, and it is especially close to B.
n. altaica, ranging from Altai as far as the West Sayans. The new taxon
differs from the latter by a brighter colouration, the fulvous spot above the HW
being more contrastedly conspicuous. The new ssp. possesses in the shape of the
discal band on the UNH not only features characteristic for B.
napaea, but also some characters common with B. alaskensis (Crosson du
Cormier, 1977): e. g., the
absence (in all the specimens) of the ledge at the vein Cu2 base of the inner
margin of the light discal band on the UNH; and the spot between A2―A3 in
a female fused with this band but narrower than in B. alaskensis. Discovery
napaea inside the range of B.
alaskensis supports the supposition of the existence of a sp.
independent from B. alaskensis (Crosson du
Cormier, 1977). It is an interesting fact that in 1990 these two sp. were
collected simultaneously on the Chersky Mt. Range by V. K. Zinchenko.Ľ
Vestnik Zoologii, 1992, No. 6, pp.
Boloria roddi Kosterin, 2000, stat. n. (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
was described as a ssp. of the sp. palees.
O. Kosterin has returned to his old position of pales (Warren,1944)
according to the presence of transition characters among these sp. In
particular, he proposed that Centralasian taxa differ from Siberian ones by the
following characters: the shape of the discal band on the UNH in Siberian taxa
is more splay and not curved below the central cell. O. Kosterin guesses that roddi reflects
relationship between banghaasi
and the Centralasian taxa which have some transitional features to generator
an the others. This is true, but does not mean that they could not be
independent taxa. Each taxon has its own area, a peculiarl life cyrcle and a
specific appearance whose variations should be evaluated during the special
pales roddi Kosterin, ssp. n. figs 1-3.
Holotype Ė ♂, Russia, [SE] Altai, Chuiskaya Stepí, Kosh-Agach, 11.VII
1907 (E.G. Rodd)
- ♀, SE Altai, Ukok Plateau, headwaters of the Ak-Kol Brook at the Maitobe
Mountain, 2500 m, 7.VII 1997 (R. Yakovlev). Paratypes: RUSSIA: Chuiskaya
Stepí, Kosh-Agach, 8, 11.VII 1907, 2 ♂♂ (E. G. Rodd); Chuiskaya
Stepí, the Yustyd River at village Ak-Tal, 14.VII 1959, 1 ♂ (A.
Cherepanov); Altai, Ukok, 22.VI, 7.VII 1995, 2 ♂♂ (R. Yakovlev); SE
Altai, Plateau Ukok, terrain Mai-Pak, 2200 m, Ak-Alakha River bank, 26.VI-4.VII
1997, 18 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ (R. Yakovlev); SE Altai, Plateau Ukok,
the Zhumaly River middle reaches, 2200 m, 14.VII 1997, 2 ♂♂ (R.
Yakovlev); Altai Mts., Kosh-Agach Distr., a damp floodland meadow with
Pentaphylloides fruticosa on the Dzhazator River left bank in front of the Akbul
River mouth, 5 km E of the Zhumaly River mouth, 2000 m alt., 12.VII 1998, 3
♂♂ (O. Kosterin); the same label but 19.VII 1998, 5 ♂♂
(O. Kosterin); the same locality, 12.VII 1998, 3 ♂♂, 14.VII 1998, 1
♂, 20.VII 1998, 2 ♂♂, 21.VII 1998, 1 ♂ (V. Ivonin); the
same locality but on the Dzhazator River right bank, 11.VII 1998, 1 ♂, 1
♀, 16.VII 1998, 30 ♂, 1 ♀ (V. Ivonin); Russia, Siberia, Altai
Mts., Kosh-Agach Distr., Yuzhno-Chuiskii Mt. Range S slope, a subalpine meadow
with bushes between the Akbul and Chikty Rivulets, 2500 m alt., 15.VII 1998, 1
♂ (O. Kosterin); SE Altai, environs of Dzhazator, Kudatai River mouth,
2000 m, 20-22.VII 1997, 5 ♂ (R. Yakovlev); ęAltai, Dzhazator, 15 VII 94Ľ,
1 ♂, 1 ♀; ęAltai, Belyashi [another name of the village Dzhazator],
5.VII 1995Ľ, 1 ♂ (R. Yakovlev). CENTRAL ALTAI: the Altai Mts., Katunskii
Range, the Nizhnii Kuragan headwaters, above the lakes, 1800 m, left bank, a
damp meadow and dwarf birch thickets within taiga belt, 13.VII 1986, 2
♂♂ (O. Kosterin); East Kazakhstan Distr., Katon-Karagai Distr.,
Altai Mts., Katunskii Mt. Range, valley of the Belaya Berelí River in its
headwaters, damp meadow with Pentaphylloides fruticosa bushes, 1600 m, 24.VII 1987, 8
♂♂, 2 ♀♀ (O. Kosterin); East Kazakhstan Distr.,
Katon-Karagai Distr., Altai Mts., Katunskii Range, bog in the valley of a brook
falling into Yazovoe Lake, 1550 m, 27.VII 1987, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (O.
Kosterin); SW ALTAI: Kazakhstan, Altai, SE bank of Lake Markakolí, the
Topolevka River mouth, at v. Urunkhaika, 3.VIII 1987, 1 ♀. (V. K.
MALE. FWl. 16-19.5 mm (18 mm in the holotype), wing span 30-36.5 mm (35 mm in
the holotype). The smallest butterflies (FWl 16 mm) were caught in the
headwaters of Nizhni Kuragan (FWl. 16 mm) and of Belaya Berelí (16-17.5 mm).
The UPS is brick-red to ochre-fulvous (in old specimens) with characteristic
pattern of the B. pales s. l.
Generally the appearance of the
butterfly looks very mottled, mostly since the black elements of the pattern are
rather equal in sizes and are not arranged into even bands (although they are
far from being so separated as in B. pales caucasica [Lederer, 1852]), and due to a conspicuously
chequered fringe, fulvous-whitish with black spots. The black pattern is
variable, but in general it is suffeciently less pronounced than in the taxa banghaasi
(Seitz, 1909) and aquilonaris
(Stichel, 1908) and not so reduced as in generator (Staudinger,
1866). The finest black pattern have
the specimens from the Belaya Berelí, the strongest ― the specimens from
the Ukok Plateau; nevertheless, in both places the variation is substantial. All
black elements are rather evenly expressed, there are no cases of
disproportional enlargement, and/or fusing of the black spots in the wing basal
area is observed in the type series. The dark basal suffusion is rather weakly
expressed: on the FW it does not reach the first black spot in the cell, while
on the HW it occupies no more than 1/3 of the cell area and extends to the
median line in the space A2―A3. The median black elements vary from narrow
lines and shevrones to bars only twice as narrow as long. In about a half of the
examined males the element in space Cu1-Cu2, which is shifted to the cell in
relation to its counterparts in the adjacent spaces, is wide enough to contact
either of these counterparts at veins Cu1 or Cu2 (Fig. 2, b, d, f-j) while in
the other half of specimens it is narrow to be fully separated from them (Fig.
2, a, c, e, k). A degree of curvature of the median elements also varies, from
being almost straight to curved (convex towards the wing base). In general, very
few specimens have a contiguous dentate median line. The black median spot in
the space Cu1―Cu2 in 20% of cases contacts the cubital vein of the cell
(fig. 2 a), however, this is rather a reflection of the degree of the spot
displacement towards the cell rather than of a median line heaviness, which
shows a great variation as well. The second black element in the cell: in about
50% of cases is represented by two separate dots (Fig. 2, a, d, h, j, k), in 30%
by a fractured bar composed of two spots (Fig. 2, b, c, g), in 20% it is a
conspicuous curved spot exceeding in size other black elements within the cell
(Fig. 2, e, f). The postmedian round spots are moderately developed, their area
does not exceed that of the other black elements, so they are not conspicuous.
Only in one male these spots are noticeably large on the HW (Fig. 2, k). In the
HW, the first three postmedian spots (between veins Rs and M3) are equal in size
in about 3/5 of cases, the second being slightly larger in about 1/5 of cases,
in 1/5 of cases the first being noticeably smaller than two others. UNS in
general characterized by clear and bright colours and elaborated ornament. Dark
elements on the UPF, corresponding to those of the upperside, are of the same
size in general, but reddish, in majority of the specimens they contain black
scales as well to form narrower black spots or lines inside. On the UNH the
discal band continues from the fore to ventral margin, has rather an even
outline, parallel to the outer margin, and an even coloration of clear light-,
ochre-, or fulvous yellow. This is a character shared with banghaasi,
according to [Crosson, 1982]. Its lower part is not or very little suffused with
darker scales, the veins are only slightly darker and are not contrasted. The
spot at the cell apex within the band is silvery, silvery glitter as a rule (but
not in all specimens) is present just at proximal margins of the band spots
within the spaces Sc+R1―Rs and Cu2―A2. The band is outlined with
interrupted black lines from inside almost throughout its length and from
outside above the vein M1. The basal light spots are well seen, of the same
colour as the band. That in the space Cu2―A2 is usually silvery. The
ground colour between these spots and the band is rather dark, cinnamon-red,
with a very small white dot inside the cell. The postdiscal area has the same
ground colour but has a complicated ornament consisting of : a) white
bracket-shaped spots with diffuse outer margins at the fore margin and in
ventral angle, the latter usually with a silvery glitter, the fore margin with
or without such a glitter; b) well-expressed vedge-shaped lightening between
veins M3 and Cu1 of the same colour as the median band, almost reaching this
band, which being separated from it by a thin streak of the ground colour only;
in some males, however, it reaches the ocellus only; c) the same colour
lightening just along the row of submarginal lunules; d) a row of reddish-brown
postdiscal ocelli with traces of light rims. They are mostly blind but that in
the space M3―Cu1 has a scarcely seen silvery light pupil (almost absent in
the holotype). There is a row of small light spots along the margin, below the
vein M1 they are silvery, while above this vein usually are yellow, without a
silvery bloom. These spots are accompanied with the reddish-brown lunules from
inside and with spots of the same colour at vein tips. The intensity and
development of red and brownish colour vary substantially. In some cases these
colours are so shrinked that in the postdiscal area the white spots and yellow
lightenings expand substantially, almost to contact to the band. However, in
many cases the brownish-red brown colour retains its intensity at the basal area
and at the ends of the postdiscal area so that the UNH colouration remains
genitalia: the structure typical for Boloria
pales s.l. (Fig. 3), in specimens studied the dentate head of the harpe
comprises about 0.42 of the total harpe length, the ventral curvature is not
FWl. 18-19.5 mm (18.5 mm in the allotype), wing span 33-36 mm (35 mm in the
allotype). The UPS ground colour is somewhat duller than in males,
fulvous-ochre. The black pattern is virtually the same. The black median element
between Cu1―Cu2 is contacted to the cell in about ¼ of cases and in
about ¼ of cases it does not contacted to its counterparts in the
adjacent cells. The first three postmedial spots on the HW are equal in size.
The UNS in general as in males. It is a bit more contrasted, the yellow discal
band and lightenings never have a fulvous tint, silver glittering on the proper
light spots is better expressed. In one female from the Belaya Berelí River
the brownish-red colours are extremely reduced so that most of the postdiscal
area is of the same ochre-yellow colour as the discal bands.
Of other taxa embraced by Boloria
pales s. l., the newly described taxon is closest to B.
ranging in the mountains of the southern Central and East Siberia and of the
northern Mongolia. For a comparison I had a great number of specimens from
varios sites of C. and E. Siberia preserved in Siberian Zoological Museum
including those form the southern Chita Distr. (the Bukukun River valley, which
is at northern extreme of the Khentei Mts. from where the taxon was described).
There is a great variation between specimens of banghaasi (Seitz,
1909) (see also [Crosson, 1982]) but in general its UNS is much less
contrasted than in roddi
ssp. n. In males the discal band
is ochre or ochre-fulvous, as in some paratypes of the new taxon, but not
yellow, as in other paratypes, while the basal and the postdiscal areas are dull
brick-red to ochre fulvous, much less contrasted to the discal band than in
roddi ssp. n.The most differing is the postdiscal area, on which white spots,
ochre lightening and dark ocelli are much less contrasted. The UPS black pattern
in banghaasi is wider than in the Altaian taxon, the black bar in
the space Cu1―Cu2 on the FW usually reaches the cell. The round black
spots of the postmedial row are as a rule relatively larger so that the row is
conspicuous, that is not so in the new taxon. Of the first three of these spots
on the HW the second between veins M1 and M2 is as a rule indeed largest, that
is Crossonís ([Crosson, 1982]) diagnostic feature of banghaasi. The studied
specimens of banghaasi
are on average larger than roddi
(FWl. being 18-20 mm in males) but this difference is hardly significant.
differences of roddi ssp. n. from both Boloria
pales aquilonaris (Stichel, 1908) and a very close to it Boloria
pales alethea (Hemming, 1934) are analogous to those of banghaasi,
but of a greater extent (except for the size): in the latter the UPS black
pattern is much more heavy, especially in the basal area, while the UNH is much
darker and less contrasted so that the discal band is substantially suffused
with red and dark scales while the lightenings on the postdiscal area are much
weaker to none.
the taxa inhabiting Tibet and adjacent mountain chains (see [Warren, 1944]), roddi
ssp. n. resembles mostly the taxa B.
pales baralacha (Moore, 1882) from Ladakh, B. p. palinoides Reuss, 1925
from Sichuan, and B. p. sifainca
(Groum-Grshimailo, 1891) from Amdo by clear and contrasted colours of
the UNH and a clear yellow unsuffused discal band. These three taxa are also
relatively small, well corresponding in size to roddi ssp. n. The two
former have quite a heavy upperside black pattern, while in sifanica
it is finer and better corresponds to what is seen in roddi ssp. n. On the other
hand, sifanica has the dullest, lest contrasted colouration of the
UNH. The main features distinguishing our taxon from all of them altogether are
the same as for B. p. banghaasi: a fine marking of the UNF and an evenly rounded
and wide discal band. More precisely, in Central Asian butterflies the inner
margin of the band plate in the space Sc+R1―Rs coincides with that in the
cell at the upper cell-bordering vein, on the other hand, the inner margin of
plate in the space between Cu2―A2 is much shifted proximally so that it
does not coincide with that in the cell at the lower cell-bordering vein. In roddi
ssp. n. and banghaasi the band plate between Sc+R1―Rs is shifted
towards the base while that between Cu2―A2 is not so much shifted.
Noteworthy these are the characters proposed for distinguishing Boloria
napaea (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and Boloria alaskensis (Holland,
1900) by Crosson [Crosson, 1977].
differences from the Tian Shan/Alai-Pamirs taxon B. pales generator s. l. (Staudinger, 1866) are explicit, in
spite of a great variation within the latter: generator s. l. has so
much reduced upperside black pattern that in males it almost disappears from the
basal wing halves. The UNH in the latter is as well contrasted and have the same
colouration as in roddi ssp.
n. but the pattern is very different: the discal band has a very jugged
margins, its plates between Sc+R1―Rs, M2―M3, and Cu2―A2 are
longer, the latter being suffused with dark scales and can merge to the basal
spot; veins within the bands are contrasted as accompanied with fulvous scales;
the lightening in the space M3―Cu2 is large and clear and can contain no
ocellus (in specimens from the Tian Shan but not in those form the Pamirs),
other ocelli have yellow rims and some of them can be additionally accompanied
proximally with white shevrons. It should be noted that the Pamir specimens are
closer to roddi
ssp. n. and other taxa of Boloria
pales s. l. than those from the Tien Shan, instead of the opposite
the nominotypical Alpine Boloria
pales pales D. et S. the new taxon differs by more rounded and wide
wings and, mostly, by the UNH colouration and the shape of the discal band. In B.
pales pales the discal band shape resemble that of Central Asian taxa:
is not so even, in general it is almost straight from the fore margin to the
cell where it is sharply bent to the ventral margin (as the band inner margins
coincide in the space Sc+R1―Rs and in the cell and far from coincidence in
the cell and the space Cu2―A2), besides, it has a more jugged outer
margin. In its lower part the band is usually suffused with dark scales and
disappears below the vein A2. The UNH ground colour is of the same tones as in ssp.
roddi but much duller, the
postdiscal area is uncontrasted, the ocelli and marginal spots are lighter. In
general, the UNH is much less contrasted, conspicuous being the silvery white
spots rather than the discal band and lightening in the postdiscal area. In B. pales pales the upperside postmedial black spots are as a
rule somewhat smaller on the UPH than on the UPF, or equal, in the new taxon
they are either equal or their size relation is opposite.
pales caucasica (Lederer, 1852) differs from roddi
ssp. n., by its peculiar UPS black pattern composed by large but more or
less rounded spots well separated from each other to leave a very mottled
appearance, the UNF in this taxon has about the same black spots as the
upperside while the UNH resembles that in B. pales pales but is more contrasted.
The available specimens of the new taxon originate from Central (the Katunsksii
Mountain Range), South-Eastern (the intermontane hollow called Chuiskaya
Stepí, the Yuzhno-Chuiskii Mt. Range, the Ukok Plateau) and South-Western
(Lake Markakolí) Altai. (A point on the map for Boloria
aquilonaris in a book by [Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov 1994] plotted on the
Katunskii Mt. Range obviously corresponds to B. p. roddi
ssp. n.) Here a traditional geographical subdivision of Altai is implied as
referring to that part of the Altai Mts. which resides within the former USSR
In the Katuní, Belaya Berelí, and Dzhazator River valleys, where I observed B.
p. roddi, it was strictly confined to a very peculiar habitat: wide and flat
river valleys, at 1,550-1,700 m above sea level in the case of the Katuní and
Belaya Berelí and 2000 m in the case of the Dzhazator, covered with damp or
even bogged meadows, with tussocks and more or less sparse bushes of Pentaphylloides
fruticosa (L.) O. Schwarz. In the Dzhazator River valley the butterflies
penetrated for several hundred metres to the neighbouring damp thickets of Betula rotundifolia Spach. on a northern slope of the valley,
with sparse Larix sibirica Ledeb.
stands. Remarkably, the same very habitat is observed for B. p. banghaasi in East
Siberia (personal communications by V. V. Dubatolov and V. I. Ivonin). The
labels by R. Yakovlev for the Ukok Plateau give even higher altitudes, ca.
2200-2500 mm. During month-long observations in 1998 in the Dzhazator River
valley, I recorded only one male in another habitat (see the type series): the
locality was on a southern slope 500 m above the valley bottom and separated
from it with a larch forest, in a transition between the subalpine larch
parkland and a dwarf birch tundra belts, on a short-grass flowery meadow with
bushes of Betula rotundifolia and sparse larch trees. This male was
collected among numerous Boloria
napaea altaica Gr.-Gr. which prefers such habitats.
are less frequently seen than males. The imagines were observed to feed on the
flowers of Pentaphylloides fruticosa
(L.) O. Schwarz, Tripleurospermum ambiguum (Ledeb.) Franch. et Savat., Bistorta vivipara (L.) S.
F. Gray, and (on neighbouring rocky spoles) Thymus serpyllum L. s. l.
The taxon is devoted to the memory of Evgeni Georgievich Rodd (1871-1933), a
forester, a head of the Altai Laboratory of Plant Defense, and an eager
naturalist, who first collected this butterfly.Ľ
Far East. Entomol., 2000, No. 86, p.
1-10, Figs 1-3.