Apatura metis Freyer, 1829.


In W. Siberia the ssp. irtyshika (see the description below). In Zabaikalye and in the southern Far East the ssp. substituta Butler, 1873: the butterflies have a darker background, clear pattern on the UNH, a well expressed ocellus at the ventral angle. Under the name praeclara Moltrecht in O.Bang-Haas, 1927 a large form of substituta was described with a red-brown colouring on the UPS with a violet tint in the submarginal zone. The females of praeclara have dark-brown-black UPS. The submarginal half of the band on the FW is indistinct, diffuse, yellow-brown, distinct and wide on the HW. The white band on both wings is yellow-coated and narrow as in substituta. In general A. metis tends to have local forms which somewhat resemle ilia. The dark forms of A. metis substituta are the Far East taxa: abramovi Kurentzov, 1970 (it was described as a ssp. of A. iris from the Gorjun R. from the Lower Priamurye and the Samarga R. in the littoral zone of the Sikhote-Alin Mt. Range), together with krylovi Kurentzov, 1937 (described as a ssp. from the N. Sikhote-Alin). In the S. Primorye there are also sparse occurrences of a form with strongly extended ochre bands. From the Kunashir Island was described the taxon doii Matsumura, 1928.


Apatura metis irtyshika Korshunov, 1982

Translation of the original description:

Apatura metis irtyshika Korshunov, ssp. n.

Male: FWl. 32 mm. The UPS: are brown with whitish and yellowish spots forming a pattern characteristic to the sp. As different from other ssp., the blue lustre is weaker expressed. On the HW the discal row of spots (the central stripe) has a lighter colouring. On the HW the ventral area above the yellow ocellus at the end of the postdiscal band mantains no dark dot (it is present in other ssp.). Large light spots at the HW outer margin are wider than the neighbouring postdiscal dark band (in other ssp. these spots are not wider but narrower or equal). In the ventral part of the UPF the dark ocellus is situated within a distinct yellowish spot (as in a close sp. A. ilia Den. et Schiff.), in other ssp. there are no such spot.

Female: FWl. 35 mm. The UPS are brown, all the spots formi a pattern characteristic to the sp., but are more yellowish than in the male. Neither blue nor any other lustre is present. Other characters are similar to the male.

Type material in ISEA (Novosibirsk).

The holotype: a male Pavlodar Distr., village Kachiry, 7.07.1972. The allotype: a female, there, 3.07.1972. Paratypes: 2 males from Pavdodar and Omsk Distr.s v. Tshernolutshe on Irtysh River (Zaika).

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1982, iss. 16 , p. 88.

. irtyshica ilia ilia var.metis . . (, 1894, Elwes, 1899).

NOTE: The butterflies of the ssp. irtyshica were designated as ilia and ilia var. metis in the environs of Semipalatinsk at the end of the last century [Suvortsev, 1894; Elwes, 1899].


RODDIA Korshunov, 1995.


The translation of the original description:

Genus Roddia Korshunov, gen. n.

Type sp.: Papilio l-album Esper, 1780. A monotypic holarctic genus.

The imago. FWl. is 26- 32 mm. The wing shape and pattern resemble those of both genera Polygonia and Nymphalis. The outer margin of wing is toothed. The UPS is reddish-fulvous with rather large black spots and a white spot at the costal margin of each wing. The wing bases are covered with dense soft hairs. The UNS is brown, the postdiscoidal area being lighter with dark streaks, or reddish-brown.

The taxon is named in honour of a forester and entomologist Eugeni Georgievich Rodd (1871-1933), an explorer of Altai and the Upper Priobye.

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 81.


Euphydryas ichnea (Boisduval, 1832).


In the Urals, W. Siberia and Altai flies the sbsp. altaiana Wnukowsky, 1929 (= altaica A. Bang-Haas in Seitz, 1908, nom. praeocc.) The ssp. intermedia Ménétriés, 1859 occurs in Yakutia. In the mountains of the S. Siberia from Sayan up to Stanovoi Range dwell butterflies with a dominance of specimens with ochre-red spots in the central part of the UPS, they are known as mongolica Staudinger, 1892. The specimens from the southern Far East differ from the Siberian ones by the virtue of the monotone brick-red background of the UPS and by a certain reduction of the dark spots. Similar butterflies from Sakhalin were described as konumensis Matsumura, 1927.

SYSTEMATIC COMMENTARY. We restore the original name of this sp. Actually, the change of the name was stipulated for that reason that Boisduvals drawing seemed wrong. Nevertheless, N. rshoff [Erschoff, 1888) noticed that Boisduval gave a very well executed drawing of a female under the name intermedia, and altough énétriés presented a depiction of a male, the image was very poorly rendered; therefore it seems appropriate once again to moffer a correct representation of a male ... from the southern part of the Irkutsk Distr.. Thus, confirming the correctness of Boisduval, N. Erschoff succesfully defendede also the status of the name ichnea. This achievement wasnt taken into account by later scholars.


Euphydyas iduna (Dalman, 1816).


The butterflies from the N. Siberia resemble the ssp. iduna. The taxon inexpectata Sheljuzhko, 1934 has been mentioned previously [Korshunov, 1970, 1972, Mrácek, 1989] in connection with Srednekolymsk, but this was due to an incorrest interpretation of the information of L. Higgins. The taxon of L. Sheljuzhko has no relation to Siberia, since it was described from the Caucasus. The ssp. sajana Higgins, 1950 is widerspread in the mountains of the S. Siberia, which differs from the nominotypical ssp. by the noticeable reduction of the black pattern. The discal black spot is absent on the FW, the zone of the light background is enlarged. From below the black veins are less clear, the UNS look pale.

For the information regarding two new ssp., see below.

The translations of original descriptions:


Euphydryas iduna semenovi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1996

The Kuznetski Upland is inhabited by bright butterflies almost twice larger tan E. iduna sajana Higgins, 1950, the females being larger than males. Among them the pecimens occur with a darker pattern, alike ab. sulitelmica Schultz, 1906. These large butterflies are designated here as E. iduna semenovi Korshunov et Ivonin, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a female. FWl. 24 mm. The pattern is as in the main form, but light elements are more distinct and the dusting with dark scales is diminished on them. There are small dark spots at the vein ends.

ALLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 20 mm. The light elements of the pattern above are dusted with grey and dark scales, especially at the fulvous band. The light elements from below are like in females.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♀ ― 14.7.1975, Khakasia, surroundings of the mountain Bobrovaya, a stream being a tributary of the Sarala River (Yu. Korshunov). The allotype: ♂ - 7.07.1975, the same locality, on a dandelion inflorescence. Paratypes: 47 ♂♂, 15 ♀♀ - 7- 14.07.1975, the same locality; 5 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 30.06-9.07.1996, the Kedrovaya River Valley at the mountain Chemodan; 8 ♂♂, 1 ♀♀, 4.07.1996, the valley of the Krasnaya Rechka River, a tributary of the Srednyaya Ters River; 5 ♂♂ 3 ♀♀ 5.07.1996, the mountains Stanovoi Khrebet [not to confuse with homonymic mountain range in Zabaikalye]; 1 ♂ - 6.07.1996, a lake at the mountain Medvezhya; 1 ♂ 1 ♂ - 8 and 10.07.196, meadows at the mountains Chemodan and Lysaya (V. Ivonin). In general, the butterflies prefer meadows with Viola altaica on mountains slopes and at screes. They were noticed to feed on the flowers of Valeriana, Bistorta bistorta, Ranunculus, Taraxacum, rarely on Umbelliferae.

The ssp. is dedicated to the memory of our teacher Semenov, Boris Sergeevich, which collected Lepidoptera in these places in the 20s and discovered Damora sagana in the Ters River basin. For a long time he was a head of the Nature division of the Novosibirsk Museum of Local Lore.


Euphydryas iduna alferakyi Korshunov, 1996

...Yakutian butterflies differ from others. They look motley, differ from the typical ones by clear white and brick-red spots on both wing sides being larger in size. We name them Euphydryas iduna alferakyi Korshunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 19 mm. There is a transversal band of black scales on the white field on the UPS. The wing undesride have a contrasted pattern, characteristic to the sp., and black veins.

ALLOTYPE: a female. FWl. 23 mm. Close to the male in the pattern and colouration but has more black scales on the white areas on the UPS.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂ - 21.06.1985, E Yakutia, 18 km NEE of the settlement Khandyga, the Khandyga River headwaters (V. Dubatolov). The allotype: ♀, 12.06.1985, E. Yakutia, the Aldan River, Khandyga, a damp clearing in a larch forest (V. Dubatolov). Paratypes: 2 ♂, 26.06.1971, the settlement Argatakh on the Srednekolymskii Distr. of Yakutia (P. Polyakova); 2 ♂ 1 ♀, 16.06 - 15.07.1973 and 1 ♀- 20.06.1979, the Inyali River headwaters, Yakutia (N. N. Vinokurov); 4 ♂♂ - 12.06.1985, the Aldan River; 11 ♂♂ 5 ♀♀ - 21.06 17.07.1985, the Khandyga River headwaters; 7 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀ - 5-20.07.1985, the Suntar River low reaches, the Indigirka River basin; 8 ♂♂ 3 ♀♀ - 17-18.07.1985, the Kyubyume River, the Indigirka basin (V. Dubatolov); 1 ♂ - 30.06.1985 - the Suntar-Khayata mountain range, the mountain Baranya (L. Popova); 1 ♂ - 15.07.1990, E Yakutia, the Myurale River headwaters (M. Zakharov).

The ssp. is named in honour of Sergey Nokolaevich Alferaky (1850-1918), an author of works about Siberia and of a great number of taxa.

Origin: Dopolnenie 1, Novosibirsk, 1996, pp. 24-25.


Melitaea athalia (Rottemburg, 1775)


In the butterflies from the mountains of the S. Siberia the black pattern is (on the average) more extended; they were described from C. Altai as reticulata Higgins, 1955, from the vicinity of Irkutsk as tinica Fruhstorfer, 1910. The ssp. hyperborea Dubatolov, 1997 [Far Eastern Entomologist, 44, April, p. 8, f. 18-20] was described on the basis of the materials from the Magadan Distr. and from Kamchatka. All such butterflies from the southern Far East were considered formerly as athalia, but it is now necessary to consider them as mbigua. For athalia in Primorye from the Suchan Mine the form asiae Verity, 1940 was described. L. G. Higgins [Higgins, 1955: 27] found that their genital apparatus is the same as of the specimens from the Alps, and has expressed his doubt in the correctnes of the labels.


Mellicta athalia hyperborea Dubatolov, 1997 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Original description:

Mellicta athalia hyperborea Dubatolov, ssp. n.

MATERIAL. Holotype: ♂, Magadanskaya oblast, settlement Verkhnii Seimchan [Upper Seimchan], 19.VI 1966 (Polyakova). Paratypes: 2 males, the same locality, 22. VI 1966 (Polyakova); 2 ♀♀, Magadanskaya oblast, the upper flow of the Kolyma River, the Bolshoi Annachag [Great Annachag] Mountain Range, near the Aborigen peak, 11.VIII 1986 (Dubatolov); ♀, Kamchatka, Kozyrevsk, 2.VII 1971 (Efremova).

DESCRIPTION. FWl.: males 14-15 mm, females 15-19 mm, so butterflies are considerably smaller than the Siberian M. a. reticulala Higgins, 1955 (FWl 16.5-20 mm, in 19-22 mm in females). The UPS is relatively dark, especially in the holotype (fig. 18). The FW has only one distinct dark-red spot at the cell apex. Distally from it there are 4 rows of dark-red spots: 2 proximal rows are separated between R stem and the vein M3 and are joint below the vein M to the vein CuP. Submarginal row of spots is complete, the marginal one is developed up to the vein A, the UPH has a small dark-red spot in the cell apex and only 2 rows of dark-red spots in the external part of the wing. Two spots of the proximal row between veins M1 and M3 are accompanied by obscure dark-red spots; the marginal row is not expressed in the hololype, but visible in some paratypes. The pattern of the UNS is as in M. a. reticulata. Genitalia are similar to M. a. reticulata (Figs 19-20).

DISTRIBUTION. Russia: Magadanskya oblast, Kamchatka.

REMARKS. The UPS of M. a. hyperborea is strongly darkened and not evenly chequered, all dark-red spots in males and often in females are diminished. M. a. reticulata from South Siberian mountains and North Zabaikalye have dark-red spots well distinct, thus the UPS is almost evenly chequered.

Origin: Far East. Entomol., 1997, p. 8, Figs 18-20.


Melitaea menetriesi Caradja, 1895.


The ssp. centralasiae Wnukowsky, 1929 (pro mongolica Staudinger, 1892 from TS: Kentei) in the mountains of the S. Siberia and in the C. Yakutia. The butterflies of the ssp. kolymskya Higgins, 1955 from the northern E. Siberia have smaller sizes, they have extended light spots on the UNH. The Kamchatka ssp. menetriesi (instead of orientalis Ménétriés, 1859) represents the butterflies whose UNH have whitish spots along the entire exterior border and enlarged black spots in the postdiscal area. Similar specimens are also found in the gadan Distr. (v. dun).

The butterflies from the Upper Priobye has been described as Melitaea menetriesi westsibirica Dubatolov in Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1, 2, 3).

Translation of the original description:

Ssp. westsibirica Dubatolov, ssp. n.

Verkhnee Priobye (the Upper Ob basin). FWl. 14-19 mm. Externally little butterflies differ from the subspeceis from the South Siberian mountains, resemble also aurelia. The main feature istegumen in aurelia without distinct teeth, in westsibirica the teeth are long, while aedeagus has at the apex a transparent prominence bearing an upwards curved processus, as in aurelia. These butterflies occur sympatrically at Karasuk and southwards, in the Altaiski Territory.

MATERIALS: Holotype - ♂, 29.06.1957, the village Novyi Sharap of Ordynskii Distr. of Novosibirsk Distr. (Y. Korshunov). Paratypes -3 ♂, 22.06.1958, 25.06.1959, the same label, ♀,17.06.1982, village Acha of Bolotninskii Distr. of Novosibirsk Distr. (Y. Korshunov), ♂, 8.06.1994, village Nizhnii Koen of Iskitim Distr. of Novosibirsk Distr. (V. Ivonin).

Origin: Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p. 18.


Melitaea rebeli Wnukowsky, 1929


V. Dubatolovs decision [Dubatolov, Kosterin, 1999] to attach rebeli to menetriesi with a reference to a complicated gamut of changes is done without reference to any concrete facts and without taking into account that rebeli pertains to the asteria-group.


Melitaea plotina Bremer, 1861.


The butterflies from Salair and Bugotak Sopkas are described as the ssp. standeli:


Mellicta plotina standeli Dubatolov, 1997 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Original description:

Mellicta plotina standeli Dubatolov, ssp. n.

MATERIAL. Holotype: ♂, SE environs of Novosibirsk, 5-6 km SE of Akademgorodok, the valley of the Shadrikha rivulet, 1.5 km upstream of the village Melnichikha (= Shadrikha), 12.VII 1992 (Dubatolov). Paratypes: ♂, the same locality, 11.VII 1992 (Kosterin); 4 ♂♂ 1 ♀, the same locality, 29.VI 1994 (Dubatolov, Zintshenko); 2 males 3 ♀♀, Novosibirskaya oblast, Iskitim region, near Elbashi village, a valley of the rivulet, being a right tributary of the Bolshoi Elbash River, 11.VII 1992 (Zintshenko); ♂, the same locality, 11.VII 1993 (Kosterin).

DESCRIPTION. FWl.: males 13-15 mm, females 14.5-16 mm. FW of the holotype is blackish-brown with 3 rows of dark-red spots in external part. The external row consists of small spots, the second and third ones consist of spots in several times larger. Proximal to these rows, near the discal vein and behind it, there are several dark-red spots, as in a nominative ssp. There are no spots at the base of the cell (a small spot is visible in some paratypes). UPH with 3 rows of dark-red spots, the external one consists of small spots, two others have the spots several times larger. Distal half of the cell with 3 dark-red spots arranged in a row. Underside of both wings have a pattern similar to that of the nominotypical ssp. Female wing pattern consists of a wider dark-red spots. The black crescent spots between marginal and submargmal dark-red spots are narrow, noticeably narrower than the adjoining dark-red spots.

DISTRIBUTION. Russia: the eastern part of Novosibirskaya oblast and Altaiskii krai (Soldatovo on Ob River, 100 km of Barnaul).

REMARKS. The new ssp. differs from the Far Eastern M. p. phtina (Bremer, 1861) (= M. ussurica Verity, 1932) by smaller size (FWl. in M. p. plotina male 15-17.5 mm, female 16-18 mm). UPH of the male M. p. standeli has the second and the third (starting from the margin) rows of dark-red spots similar in size and relatively large, sometimes the spots of the second one are even larger than those of the third, the external one consists of small spots (Fig. 16). Sometimes the spots of the second row are larger than those of the third one. In M. p. plotia UPH has two external rows consisting of small spots, and only the third one - of large spots (Fig. 17). This character is distinctly visible on the colour table Bremer, 1864: t. 3, fig. 2) as well as in specimens studied by me from Primorskii krai. UPH of female M. p. standeli has the black crescent spots between the marginal and submarginal dark-red spots narrow, noticeably narrower than the adjoining spots: in females of M. p. plolma these crescent spots are wide, equal or wider than the adjoining dark-red spots. Untortunately, I have not possibility to compare specimens of M. plotina from Novosibirsk with those from Troitskosavsk (now Kyakhta, Zabaikalye), type locality of M. pacifica Verity, 1932. I have not found Zabaikalyen specimens in any available collection. Nevertheless, isolation of the Upper Obian population (M. p. standeli) from the Zabaikalyen (M. p. pacifica) and the Far Eastern ones (M. p. plotina) is the main reason to describe a new ssp. Isolation of Far Eastern, Zabaikalyen and West Siberian populations of some palaearchaearctic sp. have been discussed earlier and was connected with a presence of relict nemoral elements in flora and fauna of these territories (Dubatolov & Zolotarenko, 1996).

New ssp. were observed on damp meadows with tussocks, the reed (Phragmites australis), and sparse willow bushes in swampv valleys of small rivulets, and on adjacent forb meadows. The males fly above vegetation under sunny weather, and disappear when the sun hides. Feeding of a butterfly on an inflorescence of Leucanthemum vulgare was observed by Dr. O. E. Kosterin.

ETYMOLOGY. The ssp. is dedicated to Mr A. E. Standel, who has firstly found this East Asian sp. in the east part of Novosibirskaya oblast (Standel, I960) on the Salairskii Kryazh elevation near village Ust-Travyanka between villages Maslyanino and Suenga.

Origin: Far East. Entomol., 1997, pp. 6-8, Fig 16.

From the S. Zabaikalye, Malkhanski Mt. Range, Melitaea pacifica Verity, 1932 (TS Chikoy R.) was described as a sp., but Higgins [Higgins, 1955] determined it to be a synonym to plotina. Probably, it can more correctly be deemed a ssp. of plotina. Then the ssp. of pacifica from the Suchan Mine in Primorye was described as ussuriae Verity, 1932. It may simple be a synonym of plotina.


Melitaea latonigena Eversmann, 1847.


The exact area for latonigena in E. Siberia remaind to be specified. The butterflies were described from the basin of the Yana R. as polaris Grum-Grshimailo, 1899. They are very similar to latonigena. The variation M. didyma var. altaica Grum-Grshmailo, 1893 was described on the basis of specimens gathered by of M. Suvortzev near the Lake Marka-Kul. In his review of 1941 Higgins assigned it to latonigena assuming that all butterflies from Altai up to Zabaikalye and Khaptagai Mt. Range in Mongolia pertain to altaica. The reason is simple: there are no special differences between both altaica as latonigena. As a matter of fact these taxa are synonymous. Furthermore, the typical place for latonigena from the Irkutsk Distr.was read as Kentei for no clear reason. As a result, the butterflies from various locales in mountains of the S. Siberia have not been investigated seriously, and the material on this subject is still to be collected. The only described as atrata Higgins, 1935 specimen comes from Tunkinskye goltsy (Turkinsk Weissberge, 2000 m, July in the original). It is smaller than latonigena and has a strongly developed black pattern (males and females). The information about an isolated population of latonigena in the Ukok Plateau in the basin of the Kulguta River is presented below.


Melitaea latonigena ukoka Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

Translation of the original description:

Below data are given about an isolated population of latonigena on the Ukok Plateau (SE Altai) in the Kalguty River basin. In extremal conditions of highland biotopes among bunch-grass tundras on a height above 2000 m. A. V. Bondarenko found out more than two dozens of specimens which we name here M. latonigena ukoka Korshunov, ssp. n. Males differ by a partial reduction of black pattern, females by a distinct black chequered pattern on the light ground colour.

HOLOTYPE. A male of 11.07.1997, FWl. 17 mm, from black spots on FW well developed are the marginal ones, at a light fringe and next it, and then only in the middle of the wing close to the base. Thus, the outer field lacks spots completely, while in all other forms of latonigena this area of the wing has either black dots between the veins or even dots fused into a chain, as in atrata. In one paratypical male the central row of spots is also not expressed.

ALLOTYPE. Female of 11.07.1997. FWl. 18 mm, on a chequered pattern of FW a light spot in the cell, situated basally of discal vein, is distinct. It is quadrangular, in some paratypes of different shape, but invariably well expressed. In the allotype on the UPH several plates, situated closer to the fore edge, are orange-coloured, in paratypes some parts of the FW also have the same colour. Pattern of the UNS is of latonigenas type.

Among specimens of the Ukok there are several aberrant females in which the UPS is entirely or partly black and on the UNS with a black pattern developed in basal area. In the whole  the type series embraces three males and seven females, with FWl. 16-20 mm. Besides, I have enumerated similar butterflies from the collecctions of R. Yakovlev and V. Doroshkin, also from the Ukok Plateau. 5 females, 5 males ― 14.07.1994, 1.07 and 5.07.1995, 25.06.1996, 10 and 15 km S of village Dzhazator, 2200 m; 4 female and 35 males - 3.07.1997, mountain Mai-Tobe, 2600 m; 2 females and 18 males - 10-12.07.1997, middle flow of the Dzhumaly River, 2200 m.

Origin: Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p. 19.


Melitaea didymoides Eversmann, 1847


The butterflies of the nominotypical ssp. occur in uva, Zabaikalye and the basin of the Zeja R.

On the Pacific coast flies the Manchurian ssp. latonia Grum-Grshimailo, 1891 with a brighter colouring. A. I. Kurentzov [Kurentzov, 1970] indicated for the extreme southern Primorye and in the islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great a chinese ssp. pekinensis Seitz, 1908. As he writes, the butterflies are a little bit larger with a strong (especially in females) dark coating on the UPS inhabiting open grassy biotopes on the sea coast. This unique testimony about the chinese ssp. requires confirmation: it is possible that one is actually referring to M. sutschana.


Melitaea trivia ([Denis et Schiffermüller], 1775) (= fascelis Esper, 1784).


The butterflies of the ssp. fascelis inhabit the western foothills of the S. Urals. From the valley of the Ural R. uvarovi P.Gorbunov, 1995 was described. We must consider this taxon as very close to fascelis (in the book Dnevnye babochki Aziatskoi Rossii in the Appendix the drawing of uvarovi is170, not 173!). From Lake Khubsugul Lake the ssp. singularia was described.


Melitaea trivia singularia Korshunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2)

The name Melitaea trivia singularia Korshunov, 1995 was proposed (Dnevnye babochki, 1995, pp. 92-93) as it follows:

...Yu. P. Korshunov [Korshunov, 1977: 5th iss., 668] described a peculiar female from the surroundings of Lake Hubsugul in Mongolia. We suggest the name Melitaea trivia singularia Korshunov, ssp. n. for such butterflies. Translation of the cited description, which should be considered as the original description of the ssp., is follwoing: Melitaea trivia Denis et Schiffermüller, 1775, ?ssp. n. Hubs[ugul Aimak]: Lake Hubsugul, 26 VI (D). [V. Ch. Dorogostaiskii], 1 ♀. It differs from the typical form by light and motley pattern, the wings somewhat elongate. Generally the habitus resemble that of M. t. ignasiti Sagarra, 1926. Probably, it belongs to a new ssp.

Female. The palpi are covered with yellow hairs. The FWl. is 18 mm. The UPS is pale-fulvous, motley since black dots are small and well contrasted. On the UNH the black streaks are narrow, do not contact completely to the fulvous band. The middle field is light-yellow not differing in colour from the basal and outer parts. There are two rows of four irregular black spots (dots) going from the fore margin to the cell in the middle field. The genitalia are close to those in the typical form.


Damora sagana (Doubleday, 1847) (= paulina Nordmann, 1851) (fig. 1, 2)


The male of sagana from China was originally described in 1847. This sp. was indicated also for Priamurye, Primorye, Corea and Japan in 1901 [Staudinger, Rebel, 1901] But a female of this sp. was yet described in 1851 by A. Nordmann [Nordmann, 1851] as Damora paulina Nordm.

A. Nordmann wrote that an unique perfectly preserved specimen was caught by Dr Gebler in 1826 in environs of Irkutsk and was sent to Petersburg to Dr Henning. So the place of capture was indicated precisely, but it was not token into account in Staudingers catalogue. It was considered since longtime that sagana doesnt occur to th west of Priamurye. A mistake was made in our publication [Korshunov, 1970]; 11 spec. were indicated in place of 1 spec. from Gebler. Nordmanns information was token in account only by N. Ya. Kuznetzov, who indicated this sp. for Zabaikalye in Lamperts atlas [Lampert, 1913]. L. Krulikowski [Krulikowski, 1916] indicated sagana for Ust-Maya in Yakutia in 1915.

The western part of the area of sagana was determined during the period1910―1935. A. A. Meinhard caught first two males at 18 and 22.06.1910 near shtak in the vicinity of Tomsk on a blossoming Carduus; the females were caught only in 1912 in a considerable population at the siding Suranov located in 27 versts from the Taiga Station. Later publications adduced the evidence from the vicinity of the villages Mezheninovka, Konevaya as well as from Kuznetsk Alatau and the vicinity of Barnaul [inhard, 1915, Semenov, 1922, Wnukowski, 1926, 1935]. There is a note by S. D. Lavrov [Lavrov, 1922: 68] that one of the butterflies that he caught near the village Ekaterinenskoe near the Irtysh R. near Urozai was very similar to sagana. This supposition and the exact facts were forgotten for 50 years, when the note about a unexpected determination of this sp. in Kuzbass under Targai has appeared [Standel, 1951]. Later butterflies were caught at Suenga on Salair, at the Lake Teletskoe and headwaters of the Bija River, in neighbourhood of v.. Tshoja, NE grom Gorno-Altajsk. In 50-60 years sagana was found out in Tjazhin Reg. of the Kemerovo Distr., to the north of Krasnoyarsks in the neighbourhood of v. Sutyagi and even on the 58 N. latitude at the headwater of the Ket River. In the Kemerovo Distr. this butterfly was caught recently in area near the. v. Kuzedeevo, among many specimens one was found out by us on one of anonymous left inflows of Mras-Su River and in the valley of this river near its ostium. A new point of the determination of the sp. on the inflow of Yenisei (Sisim River) on the average current (a male specimen caught by D. M. Pupavkin is stored in the funds of the Zlogical Museum) The recent materials are from Suzunski Bor (V. Ivonin), the basin of Berd R. (A. Chernyshov) in Novosibirsk Distr.

The nominotypical ssp. is found in China. In Primorye dwells the ssp. liane Fruhstorfer, 1907, the closest to the nominotypical one. In the western part of the area, from the Upper Priobje up to the basin of the Yenissei R. incl. we find the ssp.relicta. Eastwards near Baikal, in Mongolia, Priamurye occurs the ssp. nordmanni, see their description below.


Argynnis sagana relicta Korshunov, 1984 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).

Translation of original description:

Argynnis sagana relicta Korshunov, ssp. n.

Male. FWl. 34 mm. The UPS are deeply ginger with large bright black spots. The disposition of the black spots and stripes is identical to typical forms one. The UNS are brown-reddish. The disposition and shape of the black spots on the UPS are similar to Chinese forms ones, but they are brighter. The HW have an intensive violet dusting in the outer zone, esp. in its inner side, the basal zone is monochrome.

Female. FWl. 36 mm. The wing colouring is dimmer than that of another forms. The white transversal band on the UNH is ca. 1 mm narrower, than that of the following ssp., the apple-green spots behind the green band are hardly seen; the other features of the pattern are similar to the rest of the sp. The outer edge of the FW has no noticeable hollow.

Materials. Holotype ― ♂, 5/VII 1978, Mountain Shoria, taiga in valley of a brook, a tributary of Mras-Su riv. near its mouth, allotype ― ♀, 5/VII 1950, Kemerovski distr., environs of v. Targai (Standel). Paratypes ― 1 ♂, 15/VIII, Altai, 5 km to the east from v. Choya, 1 ♂, 5/VII 1957, v. Danilovka, Kemerovski distr. (Lekhner, Solovyeva), 1 ♂, 25/VII 1957, ibid., fir-spruce forest (Krivolutskaya), 1 ♀, 4-5/VIII 1957, ibid. (Lekhner, Solovyeva), 2 ♂♂, 14, 16/VII 1958, Tyazhinski Leskhoz, Kemerovski distr. (Grigoryev), 1 ♀, 23/VIII 1958, Krasnoyarski distr., the 65th block of the forest dacha near Tyazhinski Leskhoz (Grigoryev), 1 ♀, 23.08 1958, Krasnoyarsk distr., quarter 65 in the forest dacha near Tjazhinskyi leskhoz (Grigoryev); 1 ♀, 07.1966, v. Sutyagi, svski reg., Krasnoyarski krai (Lostshinskyi); 1 ♀, 24.08 1970, v. Makovskoe in the head of Ket r. (rdkovitsh); 1 female, 6.07 1975, the right bank of Mras-Su r., Myski;l 1♂, end of June ― beginning of July 1976, v. Podkatun, 18 kms from Mundybash (Pantshenko); 1 ♀, 07.1976, near the v. Kameshok, Mezhduretchensk reg., Kemerovski distr. (Mertvetzov); 2 ♂♂, 5.07, 10.08 1977, there (Mertvetzov); 15 males, 4-5.07 1978, Kemerovo Distr., Mountain Shoria, taiga, in a valley stream of inflow Mras-Su r. near of an ostium and on coast?[ ] Mras-Su r. (Korshunov); 1 ♂, 2.07 1981, Krasnoyarsk distr., East Sayan, middle current of the Sisim r. (Siltshenko).


Argynnis sagana nordmanni Korshunov, 1984 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4)

Translation of the original description:

Argynnis sagana nordmanni Korshunov, subsp. n. (fig. 2)

HOLOTYPE: a male. FW l. 32 mm. UPS are light-red, the black spots and stripes have typical for this sp. size and shape. The UNS are light-yellow, the outer zone of hindwings is light-violet, the basal zone bears a light triangular spot.

ALLOPTYPE: a female. FWl. 35 mm. The UPS are bright-coloured. The white tranversal band on the UNH is wide, like this of the nominotypical form, the apple-green spots beyond the green band are well distinct. The outer edge of the FW has a noticeable hollow.

MATERIALS. Holotype ― ♂, 6/VII 1974, Zeya r. valley, Blagoveshchensk―Moskvitino reg. Allotype ― ♀, 8/VII 1965, env. of Khabarovsk. Paratypes ― 1 ♂, 22/VII 1961, Shishlino, Ivolginski reg., Buryat ASSR (Orlov), 1 ♀ 3 ♂♂, 3, 4 and 11/VII, 6/VIII 1962, Gonzha, Amur distr, (Isaev), 1 ♀, 9/VIII 1976, Mongolia, Numregin-Gol r., 32 km SE from Salkhit t. (Kozlov).

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1984, iss. , pp. 58-61, f. 1-2.


Proclossiana eunomia (Esper, 1787) (= aphirape Hübner, 1799)


The ssp. eunomia extends as far east as the M. and S. Zauralye. There were peculiar populations in riamy (wooded swamps) in the Novosibirsk Region. The new ssp. is called riamia.


Proclossiana eunomia riamia Korshunov et Ivonin, 1998 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

The translation of the original description:

Peculiar turned out populations of the ryams [loc. raised peat-moss bogs within the forest-steppe zone] of the Novosibirsk Distr. Imagines keep there to Eriophorum and Ledum, often resting on their leaves and pine needles, they are active both in sunny and overcast weather. The butterflies of ryams are large, FWl.is not less than 18 mm, more frequently 20 mm. The brick-red individuals are rather melanized, the spots of the black pattern is enlarged, wing margins are black-rimmed on which blueish spots are scarcely seen. On the UNH ocelli and light spots are bright silvery-blueish-white, many specimens of the same colour have spots of marginal row on the UNH. Note that such butterflies were met with still by the expedition by N. F. Kastshenko on 8th June 1899 in a ryam at the station Ubinskaya where more than 30 specimens were captured. A. A. Meinhard [Meinhard, 1905] in his List VI did not give them a special name but noted a dark ground colour and large and fusing with each other black spots and bands on the UPS and a very bright reddish-brown colour of the UNH with conspicuously large spots with a strong silvery-nacreous glittering. Among 30 specimens two had unusually dark colouration and five had a more light one, closer to the typical eunomia. The new ssp. was titled riamia Korshunov et Ivonin, ssp. n.:

MATERIALS: Holotype - ♂, 17.06.1997, Kamennyi Ryam at v. Kuznetskoe of the Chulymskii Distr. of Novosibirsk Distr. (V. Ivonin), allotype - ♀, 17.06.1997, the same locality. Paratypes two ♂, 17.06.1962, a ryam at v. Kaily of the former Mikhailovskii (now Ubinskii) Distr. (Y. Korshunov), one ♀, seven ♂ 17.06.1997, Kamennyi Ryam, 26.06.1997, the same locality.


Clossiana eunomia stromi Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4)

Translation of the original description:

It turned out that in the mountains of the S. Siberia there occur two ssp. For the Altais, Sayans, Tuva and adjacent parts of Mongolia a new ssp. stromi Korshunov, ssp. n. is described (in honour of Semen Aronovich Strom [1906-1985], my main expedition teacher, a head of the youth geographical society Sibiria in Novosibirsk). Being different from acidalia, this butterflies lack the silvery-white colour on the UNS. From the nominotypical one they differ by a smaller size (the FW are usually less than 20 mm), they have a finer black pattern, especially in males. At last, stromi iz characterized by a presence of a large ochre-red spot (or also a small one near it) at basal darkening of the UPH. On the UNH, the colour of rather small ocelli does not differ from that of all other light spots (light salad-coloured or slightly yellowish). These light spots are surrounded with ochre scales.

Material: Holotype - ♂, 24.07.1975, W Sayan, Pazyryk-Ergak-Taiga mt. range, 1st brook behind the pass [from which side remains unclear] (Y. Korshunov), allotype - ♀, the same label. Paratypes - ♂, 23.07.1948, Tuva, W Tannu-Ola (A. I. Cherepanov), ♀ 9.07.1954, Altai, v. Abai, 2 ♂♂, 14.07.1959, Chuiskaya Step, the Yustyd River at v. Ak-Tal, 2 ♂♂ and 2 ♀♀, 19.07.1963, by the village to Ust-Ulagan (O. Ivanovskaya), ♂, 6.07.1966, the Mezhtyyaryk River - a tributary of the Chuya, 1700 m (A. E. Standel), ♂, 7.07.1966, Altai, mountain Supor at Chagan-Uzun, 2600 m (A. E. Standel), ♂, 70 km SE of Lake Dood-Nur, 2000 m, Mongolia (V. Solyanikov), ♀, 21.07.1972, Tuva, lake Kara-Khol, ♂, 5.07.1976, Altai, Seminskii Pass, two ♂♂, 16.07.1982, Altai, ♂, 11.07.1983, Katunskii mt. range, stow Bertkhem, 15 km SW of Katanda (V. Dubatolov), ♂ and ♀, 13.07.1983, 15 km SW of Katanda, a pass between the Kuragan and Kucherla Rivers, Tukura, 2400 m (V. Dubatolov), ♂ and two ♀♀, 20-21.07.1983, Terektinskii mt. range, 10 km N of Katanda, highlands, 2500 m (V. Dubatolov), ♂, 12.07.1987, Lake Teletskoe, mountain Kolyshtu (A. Barkalov), ♂, 16.06.1987, Tuva, Todzha, Lake Azas (V. Zinchenko), 2 ♂♂, 25-29.06.1991, Sayano-Shushenskii Reservation, the Ak-Sug River headwaters and the Ala-Aya River middle flow (V. A. Vagin).

Further in the mountains of Siberia, Yakutia and in the northern Far East there ranges the ssp. acidalia Böber, 1809 (=asiatica Staudinger, 1901) described from Pribaikalye, which differs from the nominotypical one by a smaller size, a black pattern closer to ossiana, as well as by the UNS with expressed silvery-white spots. As to the northern ssp. ossiana Herbst, 1800 proper, it embraces small butterflies with the ocelli always differing in colour from the background (light or silvery tinted) and extends at least as far as the latitudes of Taimyr.

Origin: Dopolnenie 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p. 20.


Clossiana oscarus (Eversmann, 1844)


Argynnis oscarus sachalinensis Matsumura, 1908 (Hori, Tamanuki, 1937) iphigenia, insularia Korshunov, 1996 iphigenia.

Siberia, the Bureyan Mts. and the lower Amur are inhabited by the nominotypical ssp. Closely related is the ssp. oscaroides Ménétriés, 1859, described from Yakutia, with larger black spots on the UNS. In the M. Priamurye and in Primorye we find the ssp. australis Graeser, 1888 (TL Vladivostok), represented by large butterflies with bright markings.

The name sachalinensis in Clossiana oscarus sachalinensis Matsumura, 1936 should apply to iphigenia, thus the name insularia Korshunov, 1996 must be considered as the name of the Sakhalin ssp. of iphigenia.


Clossiana chariclea (Schneider, 1794)


The major part of Siberia is inhabited by the nominotiypical ssp. On Chukotka and Kamchatka flies the ssp. tshuktsha.


Clossiana chariclea tshuktsha Dubatolov et Korshunov, 1998 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

The translation of the original description:

In Chukotka and Kamchatka there is ssp. tshuktsha Dubatolov et Korshunov, ssp. n. In general it resembles butleri by colouration but well differs by the male genital structure. In the new ssp. the outer area of the UNH is evenly red-brown, in males a yellow colour presents only in some specimens, between veins M2 and CuA outside of dark postdiscal spots. The fore apical processus of the valva is shortened, no longer than the lower one (in butleri this processus is very short and more stout).

MATERIAL. Holotype - ♂, 2?.07.1986, 100 km S of Pevek, E Chukotka, Ust-Chaun (Dubatolov, Zinchenko). Paratypes - 12 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀, the same locality, 25.07-2.08.1986 (Dubatolov, Zinchenko).

The fact that specimens of a new ssp. in general have the genitalia intermediate between chariclea and butleri gives a reason to consider butleri W. H. Edwards, 1883 as a ssp. of a circumpolar chariclea.

Origin: Dopolnenye 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, p. 21.


Clossiana erda (Christoph, 1893)


The ssp. kitoica Belik, 1996 [(Phegea 24(4), 1.XII.1996: 163-166, plate 2] was described from the itoiski Goltsy (E. Sajan) four rather dark specimens


Clossiana erda kitoica Belik, 1996

Original description:

Clossiana erda kitoica ssp. n.

Type material. Holotype ― a male, Russia, Vostochny Sayan mountains, khrebet (Mountain Range) Kitoiskiye Goltsy, upperstream of the Kitoi R., vicinity of lhe Lake Ilchir, 2350 m. 26.VI.1994, A. G. Belik leg. Paratypes: 3 females, the same locality as holotype, 26.VI and 30.VI.1994, A. G. Belik leg.


Male (plate 2., figs 1-2), holotype: FWl 23.0 mm.

UPF: the ground colour is dull ochre-orange, all elements of black wing pattern are very distinct, the elements of the discal row are united into a band. Basal area is thickly dusted with dark scales. The Holotype is worn, therefore the fringes are torn.

UPH: the ground colour is as on the UPF, all the black markings are very distinct. The spots of the discal row form a continuous black band. The space from the wing basis up to this band is very dark, covered with black scales that almost conceal the ground colour. A characteristic solid black strip in the discal cell remains well visible.

UNF: looks paler than the upperside because of less distinct black pattern. The area at the apex is yellowish.

UNH: the basal area is dark-brown, with silvery-white spots dusted with black scales. The median band is silvery-white, intersected by veins dusted with dark brown scales. In cells from 2A to the ventral margin this band is intensively dusted with dark brown and black scales. Distally the median band is bordered with a fine black line and a dark brown discal band. Postdiscal area immediately distad to the discal band silvery-while, but distad to the postdiscal row of black spots it is dull ochre-orange. Black triangular spots of the submarginal row are linked with outer edge of the wing by silvery-white spots. the outer margin is bordered with a marginal band consisting of two fine black lines.

Genitalia (fig. 6): attribution of this ssp. to Clossiana erda is confirmed by the structure of the male genitalia. They are almost the same as in the nominotypical ssp. (fig. 7). The long superior process of the valva is bulged in its distal end. But the bulge is directed not so frankly ventrally as in C. erda erda.

Female (plate 2, figs 3-6). average FWl is 24.3 mm (range 24.0-25.0 mm). UPF: as in male, but the ground colour is paler, the elements of black pattern are even more enlarged and the whole wing is covered with black diffuse scales. General appearance of the wings is much darker than in male. Fringes are checquered with black as in other Clossiana sp.

UPH: as in male. with the same modification as on the UPF. The Area from the wing base up to discal black band is almost completely black because of solid covering with diffuse black scales. Fringes are like on the FW. The UNF and UNH are like in male.

Ssp.kurentzovi Wyatt, 1961 from Chukotka is cited as a subsecies; it differs from the nominotypical ssp. by virtue of the reduction of the black coating of the UPS, which consequently is brighter. The submarginal black spots on the FW are diminished and the middle ones are larger. On the UNH the outer part of the middle band is dark, almost black, whereas the inner band is lighter.

NOTE. As was determined in Vladivostok by V. Dubatolov, the holotype, the male of the taxon dulkeiti Kurentzov, 1970, is a specimen of erda, whereas the female belongs to the astarte-group.


Clossiana tritonia (Böber, 1812) (= elatus (Staudinger, 1892)


From the Malkhanski Mt. Range in Zabaikalye the butterflies of this kind are described as elatus Staudinger, 1892; we suppose that this title is synonymous to tritonia.


Clossiana amphilochus (Ménétriés, 1857)


This Siberian sp. has several ssp. See below for the texts of original descriptions the the Uralian ssp. machati (butterflies are indicated for the basin of the Sob r., for the Raj-Iz range (The Red Book JaNAD, 1997), at the Khamar-Daban ssp. dubatolovi, of the Yakutian ssp. ershovi and the ssp. suntara. In Chukotka we find the smallest ssp. tschukotkensis Wyatt, 1961; of butterflies with an intensive black-scale-coating, especially in the root parts of wings. As can be seen, these titles were cited earlier together with the American starte and distincta, but a comparison of the butterflies indicates an appreciable difference between them not so much on the pattern, as on the parts of the genital apparatus (the difference in genitalia is present between distincta and astarte, too). We support the priority of énétriés.


Clossiana amphilochus machati] Korshunov, 1987

Translation of original description:

Clossiana [distincta] machati Korshunov subsp. n.

Male: FWL. 23 mm, in the paratype 22 mm. The UPS are fulvous-yellow, with large, slightly diffuse black spots. In general ,by colouration it is much more even and substantially lighter than in C. distincta tschukotkensis Wyatt, 1961. The UPH from base up to the outer field is darkened, in the central zone fulvous spots are distinct, the discal streak is well distinct. The UNS are fulvous-yellow. There are diffuse blackish spots on an even ground colour on the FW. On the HW the discal band is well outlined and rimmed dy a group of dense fulvous scales. Dark dots on outer field are distinct, close to it there are silvery lunular spots. The HW looks bi-colour: the outer field is fulvous-yellow, the rest part of the wing is darker, fulvous.

Type material (in ISEA, Novosibisk): Holotype - ♂, Polar Urals, 112th km of the railroad Seida-Labytnangi, 11/VII 1972 (V. Machat). Paratype: ♂, the western part of the Putorana Plateau, Lake Keta environs, the Irbo-Keta River middle flow, a stony tundra, 18/VII 1981 (D. Pupavkin)


Clossiana amphilochus dubatolovi. Korshunov, 1987 (fig. 1, 2)

Translation of original description:

Clossiana [distincta] dubatolovi Korshunov, ssp. n.

Male: FWl 23 mm, in paratypes 21.5-23.5 mm. The UPS are fulvous-yellow with black contrasted spots, as light as in C. distincta machati sbsp. n. The UNH is less darkened but the discal streak and yellowish spots are contrast, distinctly expressed. The UNS are fulvous-yellow. On the FW black spots are distinct, on the HW the central band is almost not dusted with black and fulvous scales. Other features are as in C. distincta machati.

Material [in ISEA, Novosibirsk]: Holotype - a male, Khamar-Daban Mts, 15 km S of settlement Slyudyanka, top of the Cherskogo Peak, 2090 m above sea level, at a scree, 21.07.1984 (V. Dubatolov). Paratypes: 2 males, the same locality, 1 male, the Cherskogo Peak crest, 1900 m above sea level, on a scree, 23/VII 1984 (V. Dubatolov).

It seems that the analogous specimens were assumed by A. I. Kurentzov [Kurentzov, 1970)] as Brenthis astarte Doubl.

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1987, iss. 19, pp. 11-12, f. 3.


Clossiana distincta ershovi Korshunov et P. Gorbunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4)

Translation of the original description:

Clossiana [astarte] ershovi Korshunov et P. Gorbunov, ssp. n.

...Butterflies from the Prilenskoe [near the Lena River] Plateau differ by relatively large size (FWl. is 22-24 mm in males, 23-26 mm in females) and the pattern of the UNH. Clossiana astarte ershovi Korshunov et P. Gorbunov, ssp. n.

HOLOTYPE: A male. FWl. 22 mm. The UPS is fulvous with an intensive black pattern; the HW is substantially blackened in the basal half. The UNS is mottled, a row of round black spots at the outer margin and their light rims are especially conspicuous. On the UNH the outer half ground colour is reddish-brown; the discal band on the HW is more mottled than in other ssp., it contain contrasted patches of whitish and brown colour.

MATERIALS: Holotype : ♂ - 19.06.1968, the settlement Khaptagai on the Lena River (Yu. Ammosov). Paratypes: 2 ♂♂ - 23.06 and 11.071987, the settlement Khaptagai, the road to Tammu (Yu. Ammosov); 2 ♀♀ - 20.07.1962, Yakutsk, the botanical garden (Alexandrova); ♂ - 7.06.1979, the same locality; 1♂ - 8.06.1985, the same locality (V. Dubatolov), ♀♀- 23.06.1992, the same locality (P. Gorbunov).

The ssp. is dedicated to the memory of Ershov, Nokolai Grigoryevich (1837-1896), one of the first real members of the Russian Entomological Society, the author of numerous works and the first catalogue of the Siberian [an error must be Russian ― Yu. K.] butterflies.

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 108.


Clossiana amphilochus suntara Dubatolov, 1998 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Translation of the original description:

V. V. Dubatolov finds it necessary to isolate in a diferent ssp. the butterflies which keep to rocky slopes and screes of the Suntar-Khayata mountain range. This is suntara Dubatolov, ssp. n.

FWl 17-27 mm. The UPH have a fulvous ground colour almost prived of black scales, therefore a pair of large postdiscal spots remain surrounded with narrow or wide light rims. The dark rimming of the medial band is slightly darker than the UNF ground colour.

MATERIALS. Holotype - ♂, 07. 1985, E Yakutia, the Suntar-Khayata mountain range, 180 km ENE of the highway Khandyga-Magadan (Dubatolov, Barkalov, Popova).

Origin: Dopolnenye 2, Novosibirsk, 1998, pp.21-22.


Clossiana matveevi P. Gorbunov et Korshunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2)


Translation of the original description:

MALE: 22.6-23.8 (in holotype 22.8 mm). The UPS are ochre-orange, more faded than in C. tritonia and C. erda and similar to that in C. astarte. The black pattern in general corresponds to that in C. tritonia but is rather fine; a more narrw black margin has no widening at the veins, as is characteristic for C. tritonia, it is one of significant differences. On the UNF the pattern is the same as on the UPF, but the black spots are narrower and two black parallel lines replace the margin. The UNH ground colour varies from muddy-orange to muddy brick-red; the ground-ochre or greyish discoidal band is relatively narrow, 2.2-2.5 mm wide at the vein M1 (in other taxa of the tritonia-group it is not less than 2.5 mm wide), its both sides being bordered with conspicuous black streaks, and locally it is densely dusted by dark scales, which entirely hide it at the ventral margin. The postdiscal area contains a row of seven well distinct whitish spots. Outside of it there is a row of six black spots and then is placed an area of ochre-red colour 2.0-2.5 mm wide. The black bracked-shaped submarginal spots are distally margined with white spots stretched out across the veins; outside of them there is a double marginal line. In the male genitalia the caudal processus of the valva ends with a single large tooth, not with a row of small teeth as in C. astarte and C. tritonia, the costal processus is large, foot-shaped (see the figure in Appendix).

MATERIALS: the holotype: ♂, Altai, the Kurayskiy mountain range, the settlement Aktash, 2700 m above sea level, a dry scree, 8th July 1990 (E.A. [must be E.M. - O.K.] Matveev leg.). Paratypes: two ♂♂ one ♀, the same locality 16th July 1992; 4 ♂♂ - the Kuraiskiy mountain range, the Yarly-Ayry river headwaers, 3000 m altitude, 7-12th July 1992 (Yu. Prokofyev).

The taxon is named in honour of Evgeni Aleksandrovich [an error: must be Evgeni Mikhailovich] Matveev, a Moscow naturalist, a butterfly amateur, who first collected these butterflies. Although it is not excluded that a butterfly of this very sp. (identified by A.A. Meinhard as C. amphilochus Ménétriés) was caught by V.V. Sapozhnikov on 6th June 1905 in the Tsagan-Kol River headwaters in Mongolia.

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p. 109.

NOTE. In the book by [Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov, 1994] this sp. is given as Clossiana tritonia (Boeber, 1812)


Boloria altaica (Grum-Grshimailo, 1893)


A new ssp. was described from the Mountanous Shoria:


Boloria altaica pustagi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1995 (fig. 1, 2)

Translation of the original description:

Boloria altaica pustagi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1995

By the materials from the Gornaya Shoria Upland the ssp. Boloria altaica pustagi Korshunov et Ivonin, ssp. n. is being described, differing from altaica first of all by a darker (brick-red) ground colour.

HOLOTYPE: a male. FWl. 21 mm. The UPS is brick-red with the black pattern enlarged, as compared with the ssp. altaica. The black spots along the outer margin are not fused into a streak. On the UNH the discal band is bright, well contrasted to the ground brick-red background; the black round spots in the postdiscal area are contrasted, some of them contain white nuclei. In females the upperside is lighter, yellowish, the underside is bright, as in males.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂ 13.07.1992, Gornaya Shoria, the environs of the settlement Sheregesh, the mountain Pustag, 1000-1300 m (V. Ivonin). Paratypes: 7 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ - 13.07.1992, the same locality.

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Novosibirsk, 1995, p. 109.


The nominotypical ssp. is common in the Altais, Sayans and the mountains of Tuva. For the mountain tundras of the Verkhoyansk Range (Koktshin R.) and the Chersky Mt. Range the ssp. vinokurovi Dubatolov, 1992 is established on the evidence of butterflies similar to B. alaskensis.


Boloria altaica vinokurovi Dubatolov, 1992 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Translation of original description:

Boloria napaea vinokurovi Dubatolov, 1992

Materials.: Holotype: ♂, Yakutia, the Verkhoyanskii Mt. Range, the Nyamni River, a left source of the Kokchin River, 20.06.1989 (Vinokrov). Paratypes: ♀, the same locality, 20.06.1989 (Vinokurov); ♀, the same locality, the Kokchin River 5 km S of Lake Inderkei, 12.07.1989 (Vinokurov).

Male. FWl. 20 mm. The UPS are fulvous with a pattern characteristic for the whole genus. The FW base ihas above  a triangular-shaped darkening extended along yhe hind margin as far as its middle. In th central cell there are an S-like streak, two dots, an angular streak of medial row and a discal streak. The spots of the discal row are very narrow, strongly bow-like curved, the spot between Cu2―A is fused with a spot of the medial row into an X-like figure. The spots of the postdiscal band are large, much larger than in B. n. altaica Gr.-Gr., stretched along veins and form a contiguous slightly winding row, as it is characteristic just for B. napaea Hoffmsg. The sumbarginal and marginal spots have no angular projection at the end of the vein M3, which usually is present in B. n. altaica. HW pattern is as in B. napaea, but the discal band does not form a ledge along the vein M2. The UNF doesnt bear any noticeable black spots. At the HW base on a dark-fulvous area there are four light spots between vein trunks, two posterior and the fore (costal) ones having a silvery tint. There is a silvery spot developed in the cell centre. Colouration and shape of wide light discal band are similar to those in B. napaea: the hind part of the inner margin of spot brtween Sc―-Rs reaches to vein Rs base, the forepart of the light spot at the cell apex only id slightly shifted distally of this dot, the ledge at this dot is about twice as shorter as in B. alaskensis nikolajewski and other forms of B. alaskensis from Polar Siberia. On the contrary, the ledge at the base of the vein Cu2, formed by hind part of the spot A2―Cu2 and characteristic for so far known ssp. of B. napaea, is almost absent in the holotype, as in B. alaskensis. Spots A2―A3 and A2―Cu2 are strongly disjuncted in the middle. At last the hind corners of the outer margins of spots Sc―Rs and Rs―M1 areacute, as in B. napaea, but not blunt or rectangular, as in B. alaskensis. Outer field between discal band and large silvery marginal spots is reddish, with brown spots between veins enlarged, the space between M2―Cu1 is yellow. Genitalia: Ratio of length of dentate part of harpe to its entire length equals about ½, as in B. napaea, harpe apex is straight, not curved down, as in B. alaskensis.

Female. FWl 20-21 mm. The available specimens are very dark above, darker than any B. napaea, with a violet lustre. On the UPH a bright-fulvous is conspicuous ab area between the discal and submarginal bands in the field Sc―M2; in B. n. altaica this one is less bright and more diffuse. Wing pattern are as in the male , but the spots of the discal row are wider, diffuse, forming a X-shaped figure in the field Cu2-A extended in the middle. Pattern of the UNH also are like in male, but in one female a weak narrow blackish spots are developed on theUNF, whereas on the HW the spotsbetween A2―A3 and A2―Cu2 of  the discal row are not split but have sudden narrowings, they are narrower than in B. alaskensis.

SYSTEMATIC NOTES. By the majority of characters discussed in the description, the new taxon belongs just to B. napaea, firstly discovered in Transpolar Siberia, and it is especially close to B. n. altaica, ranging from Altai as far as the West Sayans. The new taxon differs from the latter by a brighter colouration, the fulvous spot above the HW being more contrastedly conspicuous. The new ssp. possesses in the shape of the discal band on the UNH not only features characteristic for B. napaea, but also some characters common with B. alaskensis (Crosson du Cormier, 1977): e. g., the absence (in all the specimens) of the ledge at the vein Cu2 base of the inner margin of the light discal band on the UNH; and the spot between A2―A3 in a female fused with this band but narrower than in B. alaskensis. Discovery of B. napaea inside the range of B. alaskensis supports the supposition of the existence of a sp. independent from B. alaskensis (Crosson du Cormier, 1977). It is an interesting fact that in 1990 these two sp. were collected simultaneously on the Chersky Mt. Range by V. K. Zinchenko.

Origin: Vestnik Zoologii, 1992, No. 6, pp. 40-41.


Boloria roddi Kosterin, 2000, stat. n. (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)


B.roddi was described as a ssp. of the sp. palees. O. Kosterin has returned to his old position of pales (Warren,1944) according to the presence of transition characters among these sp. In particular, he proposed that Centralasian taxa differ from Siberian ones by the following characters: the shape of the discal band on the UNH in Siberian taxa is more splay and not curved below the central cell. O. Kosterin guesses that roddi reflects relationship between banghaasi and the Centralasian taxa which have some transitional features to generator an the others. This is true, but does not mean that they could not be independent taxa. Each taxon has its own area, a peculiarl life cyrcle and a specific appearance whose variations should be evaluated during the special investigations.

Original description:

Boloria pales roddi Kosterin, ssp. n. figs 1-3.

MATERIAL. Holotype ♂, Russia, [SE] Altai, Chuiskaya Step, Kosh-Agach, 11.VII 1907 (E.G. Rodd)

Allotype - ♀, SE Altai, Ukok Plateau, headwaters of the Ak-Kol Brook at the Maitobe Mountain, 2500 m, 7.VII 1997 (R. Yakovlev). Paratypes: RUSSIA: Chuiskaya Step, Kosh-Agach, 8, 11.VII 1907, 2 ♂♂ (E. G. Rodd); Chuiskaya Step, the Yustyd River at village Ak-Tal, 14.VII 1959, 1 ♂ (A. Cherepanov); Altai, Ukok, 22.VI, 7.VII 1995, 2 ♂♂ (R. Yakovlev); SE Altai, Plateau Ukok, terrain Mai-Pak, 2200 m, Ak-Alakha River bank, 26.VI-4.VII 1997, 18 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ (R. Yakovlev); SE Altai, Plateau Ukok, the Zhumaly River middle reaches, 2200 m, 14.VII 1997, 2 ♂♂ (R. Yakovlev); Altai Mts., Kosh-Agach Distr., a damp floodland meadow with Pentaphylloides fruticosa on the Dzhazator River left bank in front of the Akbul River mouth, 5 km E of the Zhumaly River mouth, 2000 m alt., 12.VII 1998, 3 ♂♂ (O. Kosterin); the same label but 19.VII 1998, 5 ♂♂ (O. Kosterin); the same locality, 12.VII 1998, 3 ♂♂, 14.VII 1998, 1 ♂, 20.VII 1998, 2 ♂♂, 21.VII 1998, 1 ♂ (V. Ivonin); the same locality but on the Dzhazator River right bank, 11.VII 1998, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 16.VII 1998, 30 ♂, 1 ♀ (V. Ivonin); Russia, Siberia, Altai Mts., Kosh-Agach Distr., Yuzhno-Chuiskii Mt. Range S slope, a subalpine meadow with bushes between the Akbul and Chikty Rivulets, 2500 m alt., 15.VII 1998, 1 ♂ (O. Kosterin); SE Altai, environs of Dzhazator, Kudatai River mouth, 2000 m, 20-22.VII 1997, 5 ♂ (R. Yakovlev); Altai, Dzhazator, 15 VII 94, 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Altai, Belyashi [another name of the village Dzhazator], 5.VII 1995, 1 ♂ (R. Yakovlev). CENTRAL ALTAI: the Altai Mts., Katunskii Range, the Nizhnii Kuragan headwaters, above the lakes, 1800 m, left bank, a damp meadow and dwarf birch thickets within taiga belt, 13.VII 1986, 2 ♂♂ (O. Kosterin); East Kazakhstan Distr., Katon-Karagai Distr., Altai Mts., Katunskii Mt. Range, valley of the Belaya Berel River in its headwaters, damp meadow with Pentaphylloides fruticosa bushes, 1600 m, 24.VII 1987, 8 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀ (O. Kosterin); East Kazakhstan Distr., Katon-Karagai Distr., Altai Mts., Katunskii Range, bog in the valley of a brook falling into Yazovoe Lake, 1550 m, 27.VII 1987, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (O. Kosterin); SW ALTAI: Kazakhstan, Altai, SE bank of Lake Markakol, the Topolevka River mouth, at v. Urunkhaika, 3.VIII 1987, 1 ♀. (V. K. Zinchenko).

DESCRIPTION. MALE. FWl. 16-19.5 mm (18 mm in the holotype), wing span 30-36.5 mm (35 mm in the holotype). The smallest butterflies (FWl 16 mm) were caught in the headwaters of Nizhni Kuragan (FWl. 16 mm) and of Belaya Berel (16-17.5 mm). The UPS is brick-red to ochre-fulvous (in old specimens) with characteristic pattern of the B. pales s. l. Generally the  appearance of the butterfly looks very mottled, mostly since the black elements of the pattern are rather equal in sizes and are not arranged into even bands (although they are far from being so separated as in B. pales caucasica [Lederer, 1852]), and due to a conspicuously chequered fringe, fulvous-whitish with black spots. The black pattern is variable, but in general it is suffeciently less pronounced than in the taxa banghaasi (Seitz, 1909) and aquilonaris (Stichel, 1908) and not so reduced as in generator (Staudinger, 1866). The finest black pattern have the specimens from the Belaya Berel, the strongest ― the specimens from the Ukok Plateau; nevertheless, in both places the variation is substantial. All black elements are rather evenly expressed, there are no cases of disproportional enlargement, and/or fusing of the black spots in the wing basal area is observed in the type series. The dark basal suffusion is rather weakly expressed: on the FW it does not reach the first black spot in the cell, while on the HW it occupies no more than 1/3 of the cell area and extends to the median line in the space A2―A3. The median black elements vary from narrow lines and shevrones to bars only twice as narrow as long. In about a half of the examined males the element in space Cu1-Cu2, which is shifted to the cell in relation to its counterparts in the adjacent spaces, is wide enough to contact either of these counterparts at veins Cu1 or Cu2 (Fig. 2, b, d, f-j) while in the other half of specimens it is narrow to be fully separated from them (Fig. 2, a, c, e, k). A degree of curvature of the median elements also varies, from being almost straight to curved (convex towards the wing base). In general, very few specimens have a contiguous dentate median line. The black median spot in the space Cu1―Cu2 in 20% of cases contacts the cubital vein of the cell (fig. 2 a), however, this is rather a reflection of the degree of the spot displacement towards the cell rather than of a median line heaviness, which shows a great variation as well. The second black element in the cell: in about 50% of cases is represented by two separate dots (Fig. 2, a, d, h, j, k), in 30% by a fractured bar composed of two spots (Fig. 2, b, c, g), in 20% it is a conspicuous curved spot exceeding in size other black elements within the cell (Fig. 2, e, f). The postmedian round spots are moderately developed, their area does not exceed that of the other black elements, so they are not conspicuous. Only in one male these spots are noticeably large on the HW (Fig. 2, k). In the HW, the first three postmedian spots (between veins Rs and M3) are equal in size in about 3/5 of cases, the second being slightly larger in about 1/5 of cases, in 1/5 of cases the first being noticeably smaller than two others. UNS in general characterized by clear and bright colours and elaborated ornament. Dark elements on the UPF, corresponding to those of the upperside, are of the same size in general, but reddish, in majority of the specimens they contain black scales as well to form narrower black spots or lines inside. On the UNH the discal band continues from the fore to ventral margin, has rather an even outline, parallel to the outer margin, and an even coloration of clear light-, ochre-, or fulvous yellow. This is a character shared with banghaasi, according to [Crosson, 1982]. Its lower part is not or very little suffused with darker scales, the veins are only slightly darker and are not contrasted. The spot at the cell apex within the band is silvery, silvery glitter as a rule (but not in all specimens) is present just at proximal margins of the band spots within the spaces Sc+R1―Rs and Cu2―A2. The band is outlined with interrupted black lines from inside almost throughout its length and from outside above the vein M1. The basal light spots are well seen, of the same colour as the band. That in the space Cu2―A2 is usually silvery. The ground colour between these spots and the band is rather dark, cinnamon-red, with a very small white dot inside the cell. The postdiscal area has the same ground colour but has a complicated ornament consisting of : a) white bracket-shaped spots with diffuse outer margins at the fore margin and in ventral angle, the latter usually with a silvery glitter, the fore margin with or without such a glitter; b) well-expressed vedge-shaped lightening between veins M3 and Cu1 of the same colour as the median band, almost reaching this band, which being separated from it by a thin streak of the ground colour only; in some males, however, it reaches the ocellus only; c) the same colour lightening just along the row of submarginal lunules; d) a row of reddish-brown postdiscal ocelli with traces of light rims. They are mostly blind but that in the space M3―Cu1 has a scarcely seen silvery light pupil (almost absent in the holotype). There is a row of small light spots along the margin, below the vein M1 they are silvery, while above this vein usually are yellow, without a silvery bloom. These spots are accompanied with the reddish-brown lunules from inside and with spots of the same colour at vein tips. The intensity and development of red and brownish colour vary substantially. In some cases these colours are so shrinked that in the postdiscal area the white spots and yellow lightenings expand substantially, almost to contact to the band. However, in many cases the brownish-red brown colour retains its intensity at the basal area and at the ends of the postdiscal area so that the UNH colouration remains contrasted.

Male genitalia: the structure typical for Boloria pales s.l. (Fig. 3), in specimens studied the dentate head of the harpe comprises about 0.42 of the total harpe length, the ventral curvature is not expressed.

FEMALE. FWl. 18-19.5 mm (18.5 mm in the allotype), wing span 33-36 mm (35 mm in the allotype). The UPS ground colour is somewhat duller than in males, fulvous-ochre. The black pattern is virtually the same. The black median element between Cu1―Cu2 is contacted to the cell in about ¼ of cases and in about ¼ of cases it does not contacted to its counterparts in the adjacent cells. The first three postmedial spots on the HW are equal in size. The UNS in general as in males. It is a bit more contrasted, the yellow discal band and lightenings never have a fulvous tint, silver glittering on the proper light spots is better expressed. In one female from the Belaya Berel River the brownish-red colours are extremely reduced so that most of the postdiscal area is of the same ochre-yellow colour as the discal bands.

DIAGNOSIS. Of other taxa embraced by Boloria pales s. l., the newly described taxon is closest to B. p. banghaasi ranging in the mountains of the southern Central and East Siberia and of the northern Mongolia. For a comparison I had a great number of specimens from varios sites of C. and E. Siberia preserved in Siberian Zoological Museum including those form the southern Chita Distr. (the Bukukun River valley, which is at northern extreme of the Khentei Mts. from where the taxon was described). There is a great variation between specimens of banghaasi (Seitz, 1909) (see also [Crosson, 1982]) but in general its UNS is much less contrasted than in roddi ssp. n. In males the discal band is ochre or ochre-fulvous, as in some paratypes of the new taxon, but not yellow, as in other paratypes, while the basal and the postdiscal areas are dull brick-red to ochre fulvous, much less contrasted to the discal band than in roddi ssp. n.The most differing is the postdiscal area, on which white spots, ochre lightening and dark ocelli are much less contrasted. The UPS black pattern in banghaasi is wider than in the Altaian taxon, the black bar in the space Cu1―Cu2 on the FW usually reaches the cell. The round black spots of the postmedial row are as a rule relatively larger so that the row is conspicuous, that is not so in the new taxon. Of the first three of these spots on the HW the second between veins M1 and M2 is as a rule indeed largest, that is Crossons ([Crosson, 1982]) diagnostic feature of banghaasi. The studied specimens of banghaasi are on average larger than roddi (FWl. being 18-20 mm in males) but this difference is hardly significant.

The differences of roddi ssp. n. from both Boloria pales aquilonaris (Stichel, 1908) and a very close to it Boloria pales alethea (Hemming, 1934) are analogous to those of banghaasi, but of a greater extent (except for the size): in the latter the UPS black pattern is much more heavy, especially in the basal area, while the UNH is much darker and less contrasted so that the discal band is substantially suffused with red and dark scales while the lightenings on the postdiscal area are much weaker to none.

Among the taxa inhabiting Tibet and adjacent mountain chains (see [Warren, 1944]), roddi ssp. n. resembles mostly the taxa B. pales baralacha (Moore, 1882) from Ladakh, B. p. palinoides Reuss, 1925 from Sichuan, and B. p. sifainca (Groum-Grshimailo, 1891) from Amdo by clear and contrasted colours of the UNH and a clear yellow unsuffused discal band. These three taxa are also relatively small, well corresponding in size to roddi ssp. n. The two former have quite a heavy upperside black pattern, while in sifanica it is finer and better corresponds to what is seen in roddi ssp. n. On the other hand, sifanica has the dullest, lest contrasted colouration of the UNH. The main features distinguishing our taxon from all of them altogether are the same as for B. p. banghaasi: a fine marking of the UNF and an evenly rounded and wide discal band. More precisely, in Central Asian butterflies the inner margin of the band plate in the space Sc+R1―Rs coincides with that in the cell at the upper cell-bordering vein, on the other hand, the inner margin of plate in the space between Cu2―A2 is much shifted proximally so that it does not coincide with that in the cell at the lower cell-bordering vein. In roddi ssp. n. and banghaasi the band plate between Sc+R1―Rs is shifted towards the base while that between Cu2―A2 is not so much shifted. Noteworthy these are the characters proposed for distinguishing Boloria napaea (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and Boloria alaskensis (Holland, 1900) by Crosson [Crosson, 1977].

The differences from the Tian Shan/Alai-Pamirs taxon B. pales generator s. l. (Staudinger, 1866) are explicit, in spite of a great variation within the latter: generator s. l. has so much reduced upperside black pattern that in males it almost disappears from the basal wing halves. The UNH in the latter is as well contrasted and have the same colouration as in roddi ssp. n. but the pattern is very different: the discal band has a very jugged margins, its plates between Sc+R1―Rs, M2―M3, and Cu2―A2 are longer, the latter being suffused with dark scales and can merge to the basal spot; veins within the bands are contrasted as accompanied with fulvous scales; the lightening in the space M3―Cu2 is large and clear and can contain no ocellus (in specimens from the Tian Shan but not in those form the Pamirs), other ocelli have yellow rims and some of them can be additionally accompanied proximally with white shevrons. It should be noted that the Pamir specimens are closer to roddi ssp. n. and other taxa of Boloria pales s. l. than those from the Tien Shan, instead of the opposite geographical relations.

From the nominotypical Alpine Boloria pales pales D. et S. the new taxon differs by more rounded and wide wings and, mostly, by the UNH colouration and the shape of the discal band. In B. pales pales the discal band shape resemble that of Central Asian taxa: is not so even, in general it is almost straight from the fore margin to the cell where it is sharply bent to the ventral margin (as the band inner margins coincide in the space Sc+R1―Rs and in the cell and far from coincidence in the cell and the space Cu2―A2), besides, it has a more jugged outer margin. In its lower part the band is usually suffused with dark scales and disappears below the vein A2. The UNH ground colour is of the same tones as in ssp. roddi but much duller, the postdiscal area is uncontrasted, the ocelli and marginal spots are lighter. In general, the UNH is much less contrasted, conspicuous being the silvery white spots rather than the discal band and lightening in the postdiscal area. In B. pales pales the upperside postmedial black spots are as a rule somewhat smaller on the UPH than on the UPF, or equal, in the new taxon they are either equal or their size relation is opposite.

Boloria pales caucasica (Lederer, 1852) differs from roddi ssp. n., by its peculiar UPS black pattern composed by large but more or less rounded spots well separated from each other to leave a very mottled appearance, the UNF in this taxon has about the same black spots as the upperside while the UNH resembles that in B. pales pales but is more contrasted.

RANGE: The available specimens of the new taxon originate from Central (the Katunsksii Mountain Range), South-Eastern (the intermontane hollow called Chuiskaya Step, the Yuzhno-Chuiskii Mt. Range, the Ukok Plateau) and South-Western (Lake Markakol) Altai. (A point on the map for Boloria aquilonaris in a book by [Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov 1994] plotted on the Katunskii Mt. Range obviously corresponds to B. p. roddi ssp. n.) Here a traditional geographical subdivision of Altai is implied as referring to that part of the Altai Mts. which resides within the former USSR territory.

HABITAT. In the Katun, Belaya Berel, and Dzhazator River valleys, where I observed B. p. roddi, it was strictly confined to a very peculiar habitat: wide and flat river valleys, at 1,550-1,700 m above sea level in the case of the Katun and Belaya Berel and 2000 m in the case of the Dzhazator, covered with damp or even bogged meadows, with tussocks and more or less sparse bushes of Pentaphylloides fruticosa (L.) O. Schwarz. In the Dzhazator River valley the butterflies penetrated for several hundred metres to the neighbouring damp thickets of Betula rotundifolia Spach. on a northern slope of the valley, with sparse Larix sibirica Ledeb. stands. Remarkably, the same very habitat is observed for B. p. banghaasi in East Siberia (personal communications by V. V. Dubatolov and V. I. Ivonin). The labels by R. Yakovlev for the Ukok Plateau give even higher altitudes, ca. 2200-2500 mm. During month-long observations in 1998 in the Dzhazator River valley, I recorded only one male in another habitat (see the type series): the locality was on a southern slope 500 m above the valley bottom and separated from it with a larch forest, in a transition between the subalpine larch parkland and a dwarf birch tundra belts, on a short-grass flowery meadow with bushes of Betula rotundifolia and sparse larch trees. This male was collected among numerous Boloria napaea altaica Gr.-Gr. which prefers such habitats.

Females are less frequently seen than males. The imagines were observed to feed on the flowers of Pentaphylloides fruticosa (L.) O. Schwarz, Tripleurospermum ambiguum (Ledeb.) Franch. et Savat., Bistorta vivipara (L.) S. F. Gray, and (on neighbouring rocky spoles) Thymus serpyllum L. s. l.

ETYMOLOGY. The taxon is devoted to the memory of Evgeni Georgievich Rodd (1871-1933), a forester, a head of the Altai Laboratory of Plant Defense, and an eager naturalist, who first collected this butterfly.

Origin: Far East. Entomol., 2000, No. 86, p. 1-10, Figs 1-3.


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