Thecla betulae (Linnaeus, 1758)


Thecla betulae daurica Dubatolov, 1991 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).

A subspecies is described for Dauria:

"Thecla betulae daurica Dubatolov, ssp. n.

Material. Holotype - a female. Chita Province, left bank of the Onon River, 7 km upstream from village Nizhnii Tsasuchel, locality лMalyi Bator╗, steppe on a slope with bushes (Utmus, Armeniaca), 17.08.1995 (Dubatolov leg.). Paratypes: 4 males, 1 female, the same data as the holotype, 17-18.08.1995; 1 female, right bank of the Onon River, upstream from Verkhnii Tsasuchei, near children camp лZvezdnyi╗, an edge of pine forest, 22.08.1995 (Dubatolov leg.); 7 males, 3 females, the same locality, 31.07, 18-23.08.1996 (Dubatolov leg.); 1 male, 63 km NE from Solovyevsk, a wind-break forest stripe of Prunus and Malus in steppe, 18.08.1995 (Dubatolov leg.): 1 male, Mongolia, East Aimak, foothills of the Great Hingan Mts., Numraegiin-Gol River, 32 km SE from Saikhit Mt., 6.08.1975 (Kerzhner leg.).

Female. Fore wing length 21-24 mm (wing expance 34-38 mm), Wing upperside brown, fore wing with a broad lunar-formed orange spot always extended below vein 2. Hind wing with orange tornal lobe, broad tail and tip of vein 3. Underside pattern and coloration as in nominative subspecies.

Male. Fore wing length 19-22 mm (wing expance 32-42 mm). Wing upperside brown, often with dark discal spot and a lighting outside it. Hind wing with orange tornal lobe and broad tail; some orange scales sometimes present at the top of vein 3. Underside pattern as in female.

Notes on systematics. Butterflies of the new subspecies are noticeably larger than those of the nominotypical ones (fore wing length 16-20.5 mm in females, 15-19 mm in males; wing expance 26-34 mm in females, 28-32 mm in males), including specimens from the Russian Far East (Primorskii Krai). Specimens of T. betulae from the South Siberian Mountains (Altai) and Northern Mongolia (Hentei Mts., Songino, Central Aimak) belong to the subspecies T. b. ongodai Tutt, 1907, they are small, in females the orange lunular spot on the fore wing upperside is narrow, its hind part (in the cubitus space) is crossed with dark veins. Butterflies of the South-Western Chinese subspecies T. b. crassa Leech, 1894 (Seitz, 1909; Koiwaya, 1996) are also large, but the orange lunar spot of fore wing upperside of females is narrow, being crossed with dark veins in the cubitus space.

Origin: Ц [Dubatolov, Kosterin, 1999a : 170-171 ]


╨юф GOLDIA Dubatolov & Korshunov, 1990


Translation of the original description [Dubatolov, Korshunov, 1990]:

УThe name of a new genus, that is described below, is formed from the name лgolds╗ (an old name of Nanai people, living in Amur and PrimorТye regions; Dersu Uzala, a well known guide of V. K. Arsenyev, belonged tthis nationality)

Goldia Dubatolov et Korshunov, gen. n.

Type sp. ─ Ravenna pacifica Dubatolov et Korshunov, 1984.

Male. Width of frontoclypeal area is greater than that of [compound] eye, the latter covered with hairs. Fore tarsus segmented. Wing upperside dark-brown with a very dark blue spot on fore ones, underside wing pattern consists of different rows of spots. Genitalia: uncus bifurcate, its long and parallel branches drawn together; socii undeveloped, brachiums broad and sickle-shaped. Saccus long, valva narrow, long, slightly broadened to apex. Juxta half-moon-shaped. Aedeagus longer than saccus and valva taken together.

Remarks on systematics. The newly described genus belong to the genus group лChaetoprocta de Nic.╗, which is characterised by a bifurcated uncus. Among these genera it is related to two only: Wagimo Sibatani et Ito (two sp. ─ W. signata Btl. and W. sulgeri Obth.) and Ravenna Shirozu et Yamamoto (one sp. ─ R. nivea Nire). Goldia differs from both by wing colouration and genitalia structure (see figure). There are distinctive characters of these genus:






Shirozu et Yamamoto


Sibatani et Ito.


Upperside of the wings

dark-brown with a dark-blue spot


dark-brown with a dark-blue spot


of the


separate rows of dark spots on the clearer background

narrow contiguous transversal darkish bands on the silver-blue background

narrow contiguous white bands on the brown background

Branches of the uncus

converging parallel

converging parallel

diverged but converging to the top



well-developed, narrow



sickle-like, broad

sickle-like, narrow

narrow, complicatedly bent


long, equal to the length of the valva

long, equal to the length of the valva

short, smaller than the length of the valva


broadened toward the top, curved inwards without small teeth

not broadened, bent on the top, with teeh on the sacculus

broadened toward the top, not bent on the top, without small teeth

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1990 a, iss. 21, pp. 66-68


Goldia pacifica (Dubatolov et Korshunov, 1984), fig. 1, 2, 3


Translation of the original description :

лIn summer 1982 a small collection of Theclini hairstreaks was made by Mr. V. D. Bakurov near willows in a valley of an anonymous stream at Sinii [Blue] Mountains [South Primorye]. Among them there were found out some butterflies which belong to a new sp. Its description is given below.

Ravenna pacifica Dubatolov et Korshunov, sp. n.

Male. Frontoclypeal width slightly more than eye width (in frontal view!), their ratio being 1:0.85. Facial part of head covered with very thick short hairs, black ones at middle [part of fronce] and white ones near eyes, and with long black hairs sticking out of them. Eyes covered with hairs less thick that that of [the group] Neozephyrus Sibatani et ItoChrysozephyrus Shirozu et Yamamoto - Favonius Sibatani et Ito group. Palpi length approximately equals to head width, dorsally, near their base, they are covered with white scales, the top - with black ones, and, ventrally, with white and black area. Distal segment [of the palpi] long, pointed at apex (fig. 2a). Proboscis yellow. Fore tarsus fused with apex, pointed downwards (fig.2b). Wing venation as on fig. 2b: FW vein M1 beginning from cell top, it has no part fused with vein R3+5, the latter bifurcates at its middle. Cell length is approximately equal to a half of [fore] wing length. FWl. 19.5 mm [in holotype], 21.5 mm. FW (fig. 3) in the paratype upperside dark brown with a black discal streak and a dark violet-blue flush, which is exposed at central and basal parts of wing. Fore margin up to cell and outer margin about 2.8-4 mm wide, dark brown without flush, darker than other parts of wing. UPH dark-brown with a darker tornal lobe and a spot of the same colour in space Cu1. Dark blue-violet flush expressed as a spot distal of discal vein. Black discal streak clearly expressed in the holotype only, the paratype lacks it. Blue transversal markings between veins arranged along outer margin. Ttail of HW narrow, 4.5 mm long in the holotype and 5.5 mm long in the paratype. Its inner side, as well as tip, covered with white scales. Fringe dark at FW apex, it becomes bicoloured to hind angle, being dark proximally and white distally. HW fringe white almost entirely.

Wings underside gray with a silver-white tint. Both wings with brown discal spots clearly visible. Postdiscal band split into spots located between veins. On FW these spots arranged mostly parallel to outer margin, except for that in space M1 which is slanting to margin, and the two in spaces M3 and Cu1, slanting basally. HW postdiscal spots arranged into a straight row directed to tail base, only those in spaces Sc and Cu1 moved to wing base, that in space Cu2 V-shaped. Distally of postdiscal band there are two marginal ones going parallel to margin. These two bands as well as spots of postdiscal series are bordered with broad whitish rims. HW with two orange spots situating near tornal angle, one in space Cu1, centered with a black spot, another in space 2A, the latter stretching out along ventral wing margin.

Male genitalia (fig 2 b, c): uncus bifurcate; socii not expressed; brachium very wide, pointing to the apex; valva narrow, 6 times longer than its with, with apex extending and carrying three projections; saccus two times shorter than valva length. Aedeagus very long, pointing to dorsalventral direction; near the top it bears a blunt tooth rising upwards. Juxta narrow, of a new moon shape.

Materials [in ISEA, Novosibirsk]: Southern Primorye, Anuchino Distr., 30 km of Chernyshevka, Sinii [Blue] Mts., a valley of an anonymous stream, in a mixed forest, 8.07.1982 - ♂ (holotype)], 13.07.1982 - ♂ (paratype) (Mr.Bakurov legit).

This newly described sp. has some differences from the type sp. R. nivea Nire of the Ravenna Shirozu et Yamamoto genus, which is endemic to Taiwan Island. These sp. has different shape of brachium, valva and juxta. The new one has reduced socii, but by the principal characters (i.e. palpi length, hairly eyes, separeted veins M1 and R3+5, which begin from the same dot on the FW, the same type of male genitalia) it belongs to this genus undoubtedly. R. pacifica Dubat. et Korsh., sp. n. is the second sp. of the genus Ravenna Shirozu et Yamamoto in the world fauna.╗

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1984, iss. , pp.54-56, f. 2-3.

NOTE. A long ago it was impossible to find new specimens of this butterfly. In summer of 2000 a great population of this sp. was found near Sini Mt. Range.


Neozephyrus korshunovi (Dubatolov & Sergeev, 1982), fig. 1, 2, 3


Translation of the original description:

УMale. FWl. 19.5 mm, of paratypes - 18-20 mm. The UPS are blueish-green with a very strong metallic flush. After wetting with alcohol the UPS become violet. (T.Howart [Howart, 1957] for some лgreen Zephyrus╗ determination used the changing of the UPS colouration after alcohol wetting. The same differences appear also in hairstreaks of the subgenus Favonius). FW margin and external part of the HW margin are black and very narrow, up to 0.5 mm wide. On the HW it is strongly extended on the foreborder and at the tornal angle (up to 1-1.5 mm). This margin near tornal angle has blue markings between the veins Cu2, Cu1 and 2A. The tornal lobe is brown. The УtailФ is thin and long (4 mm). The UNS are ash-gray. The FW have a hardly visible dark discal streak (fig. 2). The white postdiscal band is narrow (0.4 mm), externally bordered with dark. From the hind angle of the FW towards the apex stretches a dark submarginal band along the margin, which is slightly narrowing towards the apex and bordered from the background by more light lines. The postdiscal band on the HW is narrow also. The orange spot with a dark eye lies between the veins 2 and 3, it is not connected with the orange ventral spot, stretching between ventral margin and a part of the white postdiscal band. The submarginal band on the HW is also bordered by light lines on the  background. The fringes of both FW and HW are double-coloured-gray (proximally), white (distally).

Male genitalia (fig. 5). The bending shape of the tegumen is slightly prominent. The valva (from the lateral point of view) is elongate, slightly compressed in the middle and gradually extending to the top and the base. The upper half of the inner margin of the valva (as viewed from behind) bears small teeth, it is concave and ends downwards with a well developed УgoodФ tooth. The tips of the juxta are wide. The tip of the penis is laterally with several teeth.

Holotype: a male, Primorye, 85 km south-west of Vladivostok, Gamov peninsula, Vityaz bay, on Quercus, 18 VII 1979. According to the figured specimen, the real data of the holotype is 26 VII 1992 (V.V.Dubatolov). Paratypes: 5 males, the same locality, 15, 17, 18, 25 and 27 VII 1979 (V. V. Dubatolov); 8 males, Primorye region, the Partizanskaya River [formely - the Sutshan River ], right bank near the mouth of the Tigrovaya river [formely - the Sitsa river], mountain range, 9 VIII 1977 (M.G.Sergeev).

The new sp. is mostly similar to N. (Favonius) orientalis Murr. (fig. 4 and 6), differing from that in the male genitalia structure. N. orientalis Murr., as opposed to N. korshunovi sp. n., has a wider valva (in lateral point of view), strongly narrowing to the top and base; its inner margin has little teeth only on a concave upper third; the middle part of the valva misses a large tooth directing inwards; the tips of the juxta are uch arrower than that of N. korshunovi, sp. n.; the tip of the penis having a full row of little teeth. From other sp. of the genus N. korshunovi, sp. n. differs by a very narrow dark margin of the UPS and narrow postdiscal bands on the UNS. In the genitalia structure the newly described sp. is mostly similar to N. ultramarinus Fixs.

This sp. is named in honour of Yu.P.Korshunov.╗

Origin: Entomol. obozr., 1982, v. 61, iss. 2, pp. 375-376, f.,1-2, 5.


Neozephyrus aquamarinus (Dubatolov & Sergeev, 1987) (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4)


Translation of original description:

лMale . FWl. 17.7 mm (of the holotype), 15.4 mm (of the paratype). The UPS are bluish-green with a strong metallic flush. After wetting with alcohol [Shibatani, Ito, 1942; Howarth, 1957] the UPS becomes violet. External margin of the FW and external part of the HW margin are narrow (no wider than 0.3 mm), the latter becomes much wider at the fore edge of the wing and at the tornal part of the HW, usually it bears narrow blue streaks that are parallel to the margin. The tornal lobe is brown, the УtailsФ are narrow and long (3.1-3.2 mm). The UNS colour is lightly gray. The dark discal streaks are clearly visible on the FW and HW. The white postdiscal band is narrow (0.4-0.5 mm), УproximallyФ bordered with dark. Along the wing margin there are dark gray submarginal and brown marginal bands, both isolated from each other and from the rest part of wings by a light boundary. The submarginal band of the FW darker, it becomes wider towards the hind corner where it is split into spots. On the HW a distal bordering of submarginal band is wider than the proximal one; an orange-red spot centered with a black spot is situated between the veins Cu1 and Cu2; this spot is not fused with the ventral orange-red one, which extends between the ventral margin and a parcel of the white postdiscal band. These orange-red spots are connected with each other by a proximal light-brown mark, between these spots there is a silver-white tint with alternating blueish and brown scales. The fringes of both wings are bi-coloured, gray proximally, white distally.

Male genitalia. Tegumen distally slightly concave. Valva (from the lateral point of view) is elongate, slightly compressed at the top and graduately widening upwards and downwards, wider in the latter case. The upper half of valva inner side (as viewed from behind) bears small teeth, it is slightly concave and bordered from below with strong teeth. The tips of the juxta are wide. The aedeagus is strong, bent in the middle at angle of 30-40; its proximal sclerotized part appears rather narrow. The distal end of the aedeagus ventrally bears 1-2 small teeth.

Female . FWl. 16.8-17.8 mm. The UPS are dark-brown. On the FW distally of discal vein has an orange-red spot, the second one placed between the veins M3 and Cu1; one of the paratypes bears wide dark blue markings in thecell and between the veins 2A and Cu2. The УtailsФ of HW are longer than in male (3.9-4.5 mm). The UNS are like in males, but their ground colour islight-brown tinted grayt turning into ash-gray along the hind margin of the FW. The discal streaks are clearly visible, but less expressed than in males. Other elements of pattern are clearer. Female genitalia. The postvaginal plate consists of two narrow units, their length is twice greater than the width. The lateral parts of the vaginal sinus, as well as the base of ductus bursae, are sclerotized. The length of the genital plate equals to the total length of the vaginal sinus and sclerotized part of the ductus. Bursa copulatrix lengthened, without any signa. Hind apophyses long, slightly curved at the base, 1.5 times longer then papilla ventralis.

Materials [in ISEA, Novosibirsk]. Holotype - ♂. Primorye, 85 km South-West of Vladivostok, the Gamov Peninsula, the Vityaz bay [a more correct locality is the Telyakovsky bay on the east side of the Gamov peninsula; the Vityaz bay is on the west side of this peninsula: V. Dubatolov, personal communication], on Quercus, 18/VII 1979 (Dubatolov). Paratypes - a male, the same locality, 16/VII 1979; a female, the same locality, 18/VII 1979 (Dubatolov); a female, Primorye, Gorno-taezhnaya Stantsiya [20 km SE of Ussuriysk], 14/VII 1971 (Murzin) [now V. D. is not exactly sure whether the latter female is truely N. aquamarinus or not ]. The types are deposited in Zoological Institute of Acad. Sci. USSR (Leningrad), Biological Institute Sib. Dept. Acad. Sci. USSR (Novosibirsk) and in the [private] collection of Dr.V. S.Murzin (Moscow).

The males of the new sp. are similar to those of N. orientalis (Murr.) and N. korshunovi Dubat. et Serg., but differ from them foremost in size. The structural differences from the former ones (i. e. between N. aquamarinus and N. orientalis) are as follows: the postdiscal bands [of N. aquamarinus UNS] are narrower, the discal streaks less clear, the middle part of the valva bears a large tooth directed inwards, a row of small teeth on he aedeagus apex is absent. The new sp. differs from N. korshunovi Dubat et Serg. by a dull and delicate colour of the UPS and a light gray tint of the UNS, by the presence of clearly visible discal marks, a intensively curved aedeagus with a wider proximal half (as compared with N. korshunovi) and by a wider apex of the valva. Females of N. aquamarinus sp. n. differ from those of N. orientalis (Murr.) and N. korshunovi Dubat. et Serg. in the presence of bright orange-yellow spots and the absence of a white discal vein on the FW (these differences do not work in the case of females of N. korshunoviV. Dubatolov, pers. comm., 1992]. The differences from N. orientalis (Murr.) consist also in the absence of wing-shape projections on the lateral lobes of the genital plate, and from N. korshunovi Dubat. et Serg. ─ in a pale brown gray colour of the UNS.

[A 1992 remark by V. Dubatolov: At the time of writting this paper (1984) I hadnТt known females of N. korshunovi, and considered some female of N. taxila (= cognatus) as лkorshunovi╗. I have caught real N. korshunovi females in 1985. Now I see that the comparison of N. aquamarinus and N. korshunovi females was not correct. I have foundnd no relevant distinctive featuresbetween these two sp. in the wing pattern].╗

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1987, iss. 19, pp. 22-24, f. 2-3.


Favonius cognatus (Staudinger, 1892) (= ussuriensis Murayama, 1960, vitjaz (Dubatolov et Sergeev, 1982), fig. 1, 2, 3, 4


Translation of the original description:

лNeozephyrus (Favonius) ussuriensis vitjaz Dubatolov et Sergeev, subsp. n.

Male. Length of a forewing 20 mm, in paratypes 17.5-20 mm. Fore wings convex at apex (fig. 7). Basic tone of wings upperside blueish- green, with a very strong metallic lustre. Among paratypes specimens are represented both with predominance of either blue or green colours.  As wetted with alcohol, the wing upper turns to brown, sometimes with a slight violet hue. Fringe on forewing black, narrow, up to 0.4 mm in width, wider on outer part of hindwing - up to 0.8 mm and further widening to anterior margin and ventral angle, becoming 1.5-2 mm. Ventral lobe brown. Tail very short, 2.5 mm in length, some what dilating  towards  base, with white fimbria on inner sidae. Basic tone of underside colouration argenteous-white (fig.  8). Fore wings with noticeable dark  discal stria.  White postdiscal streak 0.6 mm wide, on hindwing in some individuals widening to 1 mm, often on outer side inconspicuous on the background, on inner side bordered by light brown rim. Brown submarginal streak extends from posterior angle of forewing to the apex parallel to the margin,  constrasting markedly, slightly separated from the background with light lines. On hindwing the submarginal streak is also separated from the background by light lines.  Light orange (sometimes yellow) spot between veins Cu1 and Cu2 bears a black ocellus; it resides at ventral angle between veins Cu2 and А2 more often persisting along veins, only sometimes occupying the entire space between them. Ventral orange spot, as in other sp. of Neozephyrus, extends along ventral margin next to white postdiscal streak (fig. 12 b). Fringes on fore and hindwings bicoloured ─inside gray, outside white.

Male genitalia (fig. II). Tegumen convex in its hind part. Valva (in a lateral view slightly compressed at its upper end). As viewed from behind, the valva  below middle [ ring] large tooth oriented inwards; on the upper inner side it bears denticles decreasing in size towards top. Penis on lateral-ventral side bearing some denticles at apex only.

Female. F.w.l. of 14.7 mm, in paratypes 14.7-17 mm. Wing ground colour dark brown above (fig. 9). On forewing on outer side of the discal vein the light diffuse spot extends to the outer wing margin between veins M3 and Cu1. The tail is longer than in males, in one specimen 1.5 mm, in large individuals up to 3 mm. Underside colouration (fig. 10) similar to  that of male, but the ground colour is silvery brown and the white postdiscal streak on the hindwing is very wide: in small specimens the anterior border of the hindwing is up to 1 mm in width, in large specimens up to 1.2 mm.

Holotype: a male, PrimorТye, 85 km SW Vladivostok, Gamova Peninsula, VityazТ, on oak tree, 17.07 1979 (V. V. Dubatolov).Paratypes: loc. cit., 17.07 1 male, 18.07 4 males, 2 females, 20.07 1 female, 27.07 2 males, 10.08 2 males, all in 1979 (V. V. Dubatolov).

Neozephyrus ussuriensis Murayama was described in 1958 (Murayama, 1958) without a name. Apparently because of this it was not included in the key of Kurentzov(1970) and is not given in the catalogue of Korshunov (1972). Later Murayama (1976) presented this sp. for the Amur Basin under the name N. ussuriensis Murayama. The ssp. differs from the nominotypical one in the silvery colour of the underside of the wings in males. In the nominotypical ssp. it is light cinnamon brown (Murayama, 1958). In general, N. ussuriensis Murayama, especially the nominotypical ssp., is very close to Japanese N. lрtefasciatus Shirozu et Hayashi. The basic differences consist in the fact that the male N. tatejasciatus Shirozu et Hayashi (Yokoyama, Wakabayashi, 1967; ╥рърhashi, ╥рnрkр, Wakabayashi, 1973; Kavazoe, Wakabayashi, 1977) is green above, N. ussuriensis Murayama is blueish-green; also different in these sp. is the disposition of the orange maculae in the ventral angle of the underside of the HW . The genitalia of N. ussuriensis Murayama in structure hardly differ from the genitalia of N. latefasciatus Shirozu et Hayashi, judging from the drawings presented in the work of Kavazoe, Wakabayashi (1977), only in N. ussuriensis Murayama the lower end of the juxta is more defined╗.

Origin: Entomol. obozr., v. 61, iss. 2, 1982, pp. 376-378, f. 7-11.

NOTE. The taxon latifasciatus Shirozu et Hayashi, 1959 now, after the ascertainment of the lectotype cognatus [Matsuda Shinpei in лCho to ga╗, 1996, 47, 3: 174-184], must be concerned as its ssp. from the Japan islands.


Neolycaena falkovitshi Zhdanko et Korshunov, 1985


Translation of original description:

УNeolycaena falkovitshi Zhdanko et Korshunov, sp. n.

л[As different from N. rhymnus] UNH with a yellowish tint, all light spots yellowish-white, look more distinctly in central area of HW... Neolycaena falkovichi Zhdanko et Korshunov, sp. n. Known from Gornaya Shoria Mts. Inhabits the taiga biotopes, the brook valleys. The larvae most probably live on legumes, hibernation in the pupa phase, fligt period from late May to early June╗.

Origin: Pauki i nasekomye Sibiri, Novosibirsk, 1985, p. 61.

The additional description by A. B. Zhdanko:

Neolycaena falkovitshi Zhdanko et Korshunov, 1985 belongs to the subgenus Rhymnaria Zhd.; its habitus resembles the type sp. of this genus N. (Rhymnaria) rhymnus Ev., differing it by its larger size, the absence of white spots in the discal cellu on the UNH and the shape of the valvae.

Male. Wing-span of FW 13 mm. UPS dark-brown without pattern, the fringe is dark. The UNS brown with goldish tint at root and light greenish coating. The pattren on the FW is hardly visible, consisting of 5 black points of the submarginal series, bordered outside by hardly noticeable white scales. The postdiscal series consists of 4 white dots and extends from the fore-margin of wings up to M2, further it is almost invisible. On the hw there are barely perceptible small yellowish points of the submarginal series with black dots that are more clear on the inside than on the external side. The postdiscal row of white spots is incomplete. The discal vein resembles a white streak. The genitalia have a massive tegumen with straight and narrow parts of the uncus. The branches of the gnathos are thick, large, and bent in a circle. Their diameter is nearly constant, except for a narrowing at the top. The saccus is blunt proximally. The valva is extended, sharply narrowed at the top; the narrowed part is slightly convex and rounded. Its length equals to half of the genital structure.Ф

Holotype: male, Kemerovkaya Distr., v. Myski, 03 VII 1956 (Falkovich); paratypes: 2 males, the same labels. The sp. is named in the honour of M. I. Falkovich.

Origin: Entomol. obozr., v. 69, iss. 1, p. 134, fig. 1 (p. 136).


Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)


The butterflies exhibit wide variation, cf. ca 50 aberrations and forms. The nominotypical ssp. inhabits the middle latitudes of the Urals and Siberia. The butterflies from north of the Urals as far as Chukotka are close to the Lapland ssp. polaris Courvoiser, 1911; they have a more pallid light-orange colouring on the UPS. In the southern Far East occurs the ssp. chinensis Felder, 1862 with a wide bright orange streak on the margin on the UNS of the hw. For Sakhalin and Kuril Islands one can adduce the ssp. daimio Seitz, 1909 (= kurilensis Matsumura, 1928; kuriliphlaeas Bryk, 1942); the males of the second generation have a darkening on the UPF. The taxon gventralica P. Gorbunov, 1995, described for two distinct males, is probably not a ssp., but rather the 51st form of phlaeas.


Thersamonolycaena alciphron (Rottemburg, 1775)


The butterflies from Urals and W Siberia a close to the nominotypical ssp., differing with a more pallid background of UNS. The specimens of the ssp. rubidus have been found in E Zabaikalye.


Thersamonolycaena alciphron rubidus Korshunov, 1995

The name was proposed in the book of 1995 as follows:

л...A male from Mongolia described by Yu.P. Kosrhunov (1977) is designated here as Heodes alciphron rubidus Korshunov, ssp. n. Additional material: a female - 16.07.1939, the Chita River headwaters (E. I. Pavlova)╗.

Translation of the cited description, which should be considered as the original description of the ssp., is following: лCentral [Aimak]: terrain Sudzukte, 15-16 VII 1925, 1 male [(P. K. Kozlov, E. V. Kozlova and colleagues)].

MALE: The FWl. is 16 mm. The violet flush on the wings is more weakly expressed than in the typical form (the butterfly looks reddish), while the dark spots on the FW are more contrasted, especially in the cell. Almost double spots at the hind margin of the FW are well seen. On the UNH the dark spots of the second row situated internally of the orange streak are not round, as in the typical form, but somewhat elongate, they are not ringed with light rims. The genitalia scarcely differ from the type.╗

Origin: Nasekomye Mongolii, iss. 5, 1977, pp.675-676.


Heodes virgaureae (Linnaeus, 1758)


From Turgojak near Miass in the S. Urals the ssp. alexandrae Fruhstorfer, 1909 has been described; it occurs in southern W. Siberia. The butterflies from taiga Distr.s of the Urals and Siberia differ from the southern ones by the extended black pattern on the UPS of the w in females; they were described for Yakutia as lena Kurentzov, 1970. For E. Sajan, Zabaikalye the ssp. virgaureola Staudinger, 1892 (= mongolica Kurentzov, 1970) has been noted.


Niphanda fusca (Bremer et Gray, 1853)


The butterflies from Transbaikalye and Priamutye differ from those from Primorye which are close to the nominotypical ones, by the presence of whitish spots and fields on the UNS, that makes the pattern more motley. They are presented by the ssp. pavlovi Korshunov, ssp. n.

Holotype ― ♀, 11.07.1996, 8 km WNW from Lower Tsasuchey, the left bank of the Onon R. at the bridge, uroch. Maly Batur (Dubatolov, Kosterin); allotype ― ♂, 11.07.1998, Amur Distr., env. of Blagoveshchensk, 6 km NE from Mokhovaya PadТ, Lake Peschanoye (Dubatolov, StrelТtsov); Paratype ― ♂, 5.07.1995, uroch. Maly Batur, the border of elm forest (Kosterin, Berezina), ♂, 3.07.1999, env. of the v. Peschanoye (Dubatolov).

The ssp. is named in honour of a naturalist A. E. Pavlov (Chita), whos main activity coincided with the 30-50 years of the 20th century.


Celastrina ladonides (dТOrza, 1869)


The ssp. ladonides occurs in the Kuril Islands. The лrace╗ sachalinensis Esaki, 1922 was described from Sakhalin.

NOTE. It turns out that in StaudingerТs catalogue the year 1867 is mistaken: tis is rather the year of the exposition in Japan, whereas the year of publication is 1869. According to the information of Ljubarskaja (1964) this sp. was discovered on a Phellodendron amurense in the arboretum of DNIILKH. The caterpillars had gnawed out the stamens of flowers. The caterpillars were 0.5- 1 cm long, of a pallid turquoise colour, with black heads, and flattened, similar to wood-lice. The pupae are bare, light-brown. The caterpillars were pupating by fastening themselves to leaves.


Celastrina fedoseevi Korshunov et Ivonin, 1990


Translation of original description.

УMale. F.w.l. 16 mm, in the paratypus - 14 mm. Wing upperside above violet-blue without metal lustre. Dark dots beween veins brightly expressed at outer margion of the hindwings, while on the forewings they are brightly expressed. On the wing underside the pattern is fine, linear. The male genital apparatis is intermediate berween the speies C. argiolus L., and C. sugitanii Mats., socii shortened, valvae tips somewhat bent, without teeth.

Materials: Holotype ─ a male, Amur Distr., environs of the town Zeya, the Soktakhan mt. range, a forest cutting, 23/VI 1985 (Ivonin). Paratype ─ the same locality, 22/VI 1985, a maleФ.

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1990 b, iss. 22, pp. 72-75, f. 3-4.


Celastrina heringi (Kardakov, 1928) (= phellodendroni Omelko, 1987)


NOTE. Without having proved as a matter of fact that before him are the specimens of the very taxon described by N. Kardakov, B. Dubatolov supposes again that heringi is a ssp. of ladonides. The subsequent discussion is quite heated due to a somewhat incorrect understanding of the German description of heringi. Again the drawings in his paper ([Dubatolov] in Far Eastern Entomologist, 44, April, 1997, pp.2-3, figs.1-3) under No. 2 and 3 differ in no way from No. 1, and show that phellodendroni = heringi.


╨юф INDERSKIA Korshunov, 2000


The description and a drawing [Zhdanko, 1999 ― TETHYS Entomological Research, pp.. 208, 210, fig. 12] for Lycaena panope Eversmann, 1851 permit us to define more precisely the status of tis taxon. A noticeable difference in aspect of butterflies and of  details of the genital apparatus show that panope doesnТt pertain neither to Praephilotes Forster, 1938 (t. s. ─ Lycaena anthracias Christoph, 1877) as V. Lukhtanovit iproposes, neither to Praephilotes Forster, 1938 (t. s. ─ Lycaena anthracias Christoph, 1877) regardless of  the A. Danchenko and A. ZhankoТs meaning .

The male genitalia as show the drawings by A. Zdanko are peculiar: the valvae donТt bear teeth, there are no hollows, their tops are roundish, the juxta branches are rather long, the aedeagus short with a thorny cornutus in the middle part. Outwardly the male is enough different from the sp. like vicrama, while the female seems to Maculinea. All together causes us to postulate a new genus.


Pseudophilotes schiffermuelleri (Hemming, 1929) (= vicrama auct., baton auct.)


SYSTEMATIC NOTES. In his work in 1929 Hemming designates schiffermuelleri as a new ssp., though it was known as hylas Schiffermuller, 1775 already in the 18th century. As the name hylas was invalid because of homonymy, it was replaced by Hemming ( but it is not clear why he writes лssp. n╗ in place of лnom. n╗.). Thus one can not fail to observe in fact that the taxon of Schiffermüller is much older than baton and vicrama. Therefore, first of all we separate schiffermuelleri as a special sp. placing it on the head of the classification. Actually, this is also confirmed by the drawings from HenningТs materials. In any event, the detailed difference of the male genitalia (e. g., the outline of valvae) between schiffermuelleri and vicrama is no less than between vicrama and abencerragus, not to mention on the baton. As for schiffermuelleri, only its western populations have been partly investigated. It is necessary to research the Siberian ones, especially their habitations and mode of life. The ssp. clara Christoph, 1887 belongs to vicrama, and in our opinion Elwes at ngudai in the Altai was dealing with schiffermuelleri and not with clara (cь. Plate I andII in the book [Hemming, 1929].


Pseudophilotes jacuticus Korshunov et Viidalepp, 1980 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4).


In summer of 1969 H. Remm caught 14 specimens of the genus Pseudophilotes near Yakutsk which were simulatneously investigated in Novosibirsk and Tartu. It was found out that this was a new sp. A more recent materials obtained by YUu. N. Ammosov from neighbourhood of the st. Oktemtzy (steppefied areas, 50 km S of Yakutsk, next to Khaptagai) confirmed this.

Translation of the original description:

лBy size and wing colouration it resembles the close sp. P. vicrama Moore and P. baton Brgstr.

Male. UPS evenly grayish-blue with a spotted fringe. On the transversal vein of the FW there ia an oblong is well distinct spot, on the transversal vein of the HW it is less noticeable. Along the black border line of outer the area of the FW there are small lighter spots between veins, each of middle spots containing a small black dot. On the HW two small black spots are adjacent to the border line of he outer field. Then UNS are blueish-ash-gray with a pattern consisting of black and fulvous spots typical for the entire genus. The valva has two teeth on the apex, of which the upper one is almost thrice as short as the lower one. The juxta has a usual shape for this group, in 1/3 longer than in P. vicrama. The lateral processes of the uncus are short, the subunci acute, narrow. The aedeagus is short, blunt, without incrustations.

Female. The UPS brownish-black, with a sparse blueish dusting at the base. Black rounded spots and a row of fulvous-reddish spots on the UNS are noticeably larger whereas the wing ground colour is noticeably darker than in male.

Materials: holotype - ♂, Yakutskaya ASSR, Yakutsk, a steppefied slope at the Lena River bank, 16th June 1969 (Remm). Paratypes: 19 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀ from the environc of the city of Yakutsk.

The holotype is in the collection of the Institute of Zoology and Botany of the Academy of Science of the Estonian SSR (Tartu).

Systematic notes: The main character of the new sp. is the disposition of teeth on the valva. In the ssp. of P. vicrama the valva ends with a single pointed and medially directed teeth. In a close sp. P. baton the valva bears two teeth but one is situated on its apex while the second in the middle of the inner margin. Different is the shape of teeth on a rounded valva as well as in the western sp. P. abencerragus Pier. Externally the new sp. is most close to P. baton. The available materials evidence for a little variation of specimens in the colouration, pattern and size. FWl. of P. jacuticus is 10-12 mm, wing span is 17.5-21 mm. In the European forms P. vicrama and P. baton the UPS are usually with a warm reddish tint and seen through the brown background, in the Turkmenian form they are with a silvery tint on a blueish background. It turned out that the row of lighter spots along the black line bordering on the FW outer area is expressed in all the specimens (in the ssp. of P. vicrama, P. baton these spots may be absent or hardly seen but opposite cases may happen ― in a population of P. vicrama from the Saratov environs these spots are distinct and bear dots. Freshness of the materials has a great importance: in the worn out butterflies the scales are missing firstly just on the wing margins. It is found out that in most specimens of the new ssp., on the UNH, three central spots of the row of black round spots bordering the outer area inside are disposed closely, one above another, while in P. vicrama, P. baton the central of these three spots usually shifted towards the outer margin.╗

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1980, iss. 14 , pp. 154-157.


╨юф RUBRAPTERUS Korshunov, 1990


Translation of the original description:

Type sp. is Lycaena bavius Eversmann, 1832.

The antennae are black with white ringlets, the club is oblong, covered on top with black scales, which are white on each side of the brownish underneath. The FW of the male are violet-blue on top with a wide (up to 2 mm) spotted dark-brown border and brown spots on the fringe. The discal spot is narrow and usually almost invisible. The UPH is violet-blue with bright dark dots along the border before the spotted fringe. Two points in the ventral corner are situated beneath the reddish-orange dots. The pattern on the UNS consists of black points on a blue-gray background. The FW are somewhat darker than the HW. A bright-red band, that is wider than 1 mm, crosses the outer margin of the HW. The male genitalia are notable for the large development of the tegumen, as well as for a rather wide valvae and aedeagus. In representantives of the other genera the sections, if the valvae have any appendices, are of a completely different form, and the tegumen is smaller.

The genus includes two sp.: bavius Ev. and fatma Oberthur, 1890.

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1987, iss. 19, pp. 9-10, f. 1.


Glaucopsyche lycormas (Butler, 1868)


The ssp. lederi A. Bang-Haas, 1907 (TL ― E. Sayan) is widespread in Siberia, Priamurye, and in the Bureinsky Mt. Range. In Primorye and Sakhalin we find the ssp. scylla Oberthür, 1880; it differs from lederi in a larger size, the violet-dark-blue colouring and a rather broad darkening of the wings. The males of the butterflies from unashir Island Ц the ssp. tomariana Matsumura, 1928 Ц are notable for their small size, the light-blue colouring of the UPS and a narrow darkening at the outer margin; the females are notable for their light-blue colouring on the UPS with a wide black edging.


╨юф BAJLUANA Korshunov, 1990


Translation of original description:

УGenus Bajluana Korshunov, gen.n.

Type sp. Lycaena argali Elwes, 1899 (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.: 328, 329).

The antennae have spotted stalks and black clubs with white tops. The head and the body are white-haired. The palpi are dark from above; from below they are covered with light-coloured down and have a bunch of long black hair. The UPS in males is pale-yellow with a metallic tint or silvery-blue, the UPS in females is brown with a steel-blue downing, the tint is more intense in the root zone. One can see a strong play of colours by observing the wings under different angles relative to the source of light. The black margin of the males has approximately the same width as that of A. melanops Nsd. The females have darkened borders on the wings. The UNS of males and females are grayish or grayish-brown. A white-bordered black line passes along the outer edge of the wings. On the FW, between the veins R5-Cu2, there are five uneven black dots within a white rimming. There are small uneven black white-rimmed spots between the veins R-A2 on the HW. The spots at the veins Cu2-A2 are sometimes absent. Between the dorsal vein and the postmedial series of ocelli there are one or several dots. The fringe is white, the basal half is brown. As to the genitalia, there are visible differences in the structure of the juxtae, valvae, unci and aedeagi as compared with A. melanops Bsd. and G. lygdamus Bbld

Origin: New sp., Novosibirsk, 1990 b, iss. 22, pp. 70-71, f. 1-2.

G. D. Elwes did not indicate the holotype. We choose as a lectotype a male in the collection of the British Museum with two labels: лAltai Scheep. camp.650 27.6.98╗ and лElwes Coll. 1902-85╗. The hand-written labels лLectotypus Lycaena argali Elwes det. Ju. Korshunov╗ and лBajluana argali Elwes. det. Ju. KorshunovФ have been sent to London for inclusion into the specimen labels, whose drawing was kindly sent to us on two colour slides from the British Museum by T. G. Howarth. TS Ц Kuyuktan R. in the S.-E. Altai, the Chuja R. basin; the lectotype is from H. J. ElwesТ collection [Ivonin, Korshunov, 1990: 71].


Bajluana argali (Elwes, 1899)


The original description:

У L[ycaena] argali n. sp.

Male. лUpperside pale metallic silvery blue, both wings with a black marginal band, which is about as broad as that of melanops, underside gray, both wings with a white anteciliary line, succeeded by a dark one, a white-edged black line at the end of cell in both wings, and a dark marginal band, broken into spots, base of the HW dusky with scattered gray scales. UNF with a curved series of five subequal roundish white-edged black spots placed one in each of cells 2-6, and gradually receding from the margin as they approach the costa. UNH with a nearly regular postmedian series of small subequal roundish white-edged black spots placed one in each of cells 2-7, and running parallel to the margin and a similar spot near the basal third of cell 7; the latter and the spot proper to cell 6 are some times obsolete or wanting, and the postmedian series is sometimes extended towards the dorsum by one or more additional spots. Fringes white, the basal half brown. Antennae sharf black ringed with white, club black on the upperside, white at tip. Expanse 21-26 mm.╗

Origin: Trans. ent. soc. Lond. 1899, Part III: 328-329.


Maculinea teleius (Bergstrasser, 1779)


The ssp. obscurata Staudinger, 1892  inhabits the main part of Siberia: the males have a dark-violet UPS, the females a dark-brown one. Its bright form splendens Kozhantshikov, 1924 was described from the Minusinsk steppes. The ssp. euphemia Staudinger, 1887 (= insignis Sheljuzhko. 1928) from Priamurye and Primorye is very changeable, the butterflies have noticeably largened postdiscal spots in the UNH and well-developed submarginal ones. The ssp. ogumae Matsumura, 1910 was described from Sakhalin, doii Matsumura, 1928 from the S. Kuril Islands. The island butterflies differ from the continental ones in a bright sky-blue colouring of the UPS anf in a lighter background of the UNS with well developed spots, there is a difference in genitalia structure (aedeagus, branches of gnathos). They may form a bona sp.


Plebejus lucifer (Staudinger, 1867)


In the mountains of the S. Siberia flies the ssp. lucifer (= lornex Higgins, 1981). From Zabaikalye was described a similar taxon selengensis Forster, 1940. In the eastern Zabaikalye and in Priamurye occurs the ssp. юtton. The name otton Korshunov, 1996 was proposed for a ssp. of Plebejus lucifer instead of biton Bremer, 1861, which is a primary homonym to biton Sulz, 1776, a ssp. of Polyommatus damon ([D. et Sch.], 1775).


Plebejus argus (Linnaeus, 1758)


The ssp. obiensis Forster, 1936 (= korshunovi Standel, 1960) occurs in the Urals and in Siberia. In the mountains of the S. Siberia and on the Stanovoy Upland we have the ssp. clarasiatica Verity, 1931 (= katunica Standel, 1960). In the M. Priamurye and in Primorye one enconters the ssp. coreana Tutt, 1908 (? = kurentzovi Kocak, 1980 pro orientalis Kurentzov, 1970); the sizes of the butterflies are larger on average, brilliant dots on the HW wanting. The Sikhote-Alin Mts. and the Lower Priamurye are also home of the small butterflies whose wings have darkened UNS. In Sakhalin dwells the ssp. pseudoaegon Butler, 1881; the males have a light-blue colouring on the UPS, a narrow black border beside which are situated black spots on the HW; the UNS is whitish, large red spotted. The males of argus from the C. Yakutia havea  light-blue colouring of the UPS; they are similar to P. tancrei verchojanicus with respect to several exterior features. They are described as a ssp. P. argus caeruleaGorbunov, 1995. P. Gorbunov noted that the Asiatic ssp. of argus are violet. Long ago A. E. Standel [Standel, 1960] wrote that the UPS of korshunovi is лmore dark-blue, with a rather weaker development of the violet tint╗, and that the UPS of katunica is лstill more dark-blue, bright, almost lacking a violet hue, with a peculiar silver tint.╗ A. I. Kurentzov [Kurtentzov, 1970 noted that лthe males are from above light- or dark-blue coloured╗. Therefore the question arises: what is for a ёaerulea? Unfortunately the first described specimens are not available to us. Our materials from Yakutsk testify that such butterflies do not pertain to argus neither in outward appearance nor in respect to genitalia.


Maculinea kurentzovi Sibatani, Saigusa et Hirowatari, 1994


Original description:

"Maculinea kurentzovi sp. nov.

(Figs 9♂; 10 ♀; 18-19 ♂♂; 20-24 ♀♀; 30D map ; 40 male genitalia ; 43, 44 valvae , 48, female genitalia)

Lycaena euphemus hozanensis : Mori, Doi & Cho, 1934 : 52, pl. 25, figs 9 (♀), I0 (♂) (northern, western and central Korea), nec Matsumura, 1927.

Maculinea teleius hozanensis : Lee, S.-M., 1993: 23 (E Manchuria), nec Matsumura, 1927. Lycaena kondakovi Kurentzov, 1970: 142 (♀ paralectotype here designated) (Primor'e: Upper part of Suchan[g], Sozyo [=Partizansk] River), partim.

Types. Holotype, ♂. Dem peopleТs rep. Of Korea ЧRyanggang-Do: labelled "Kantairi [=Handaeri ], 29. 07. 1939", ex SM, KUB. Paratypes. 10♂ 9♀ (all examined) :N KOREA Ц Ryanggang-Do: 3♂ 1♀, Hyesan [ =Haesan; Keisan, Paramtec 1,200m, Poch'ombo [= Hutenha], 31. 07. 89 (E. Palik), ISEZ (I ♂) and WE (2 ♂ 1 ♀), 1 ♀ Hyesan-Langdak 900m, 30. 07i. 1989 (E. Palik), ISEZ ; 2 ♂, "Tonai, Hakugan" [=Paegam], 23. 07. 1933 ( I. Sugitani), IS , Hamgyong-buk-Do : 1 ♀,"Kosyo" [= Fuchang], 14. 07. 1937, I ♀, "Zyosin" [ = Sungjm ], 16. 08. 1942, I ♀, Hakumo-kogen [ = Paekmu Koweon (Highlands)], Hokkeisui [ = Pukkaesu], 19. 07. 1942, all SM. RUSSIAЧPrimorskij Kraj: I ♀, paralectotype of Lycaena kondakovi Kurentzov, 1970 (= subspecies of M. alcon), labelled "13. 08. 31, Forest upper part of Suchan[g] (=Partizanskaya) River" (translated from Russian), as well as " [PARALECTOTYPE] /Lycaena kondakovi/Kurentzov, 1970/ designated by Sibatani.[Saigusa et Hirowatari,1994]" (here designated); 2 ♀, Sikhote Alinskij Reserve, Ternei (Terney), 3. 07. 1964 (Volkova), all IBP ; 1 ♂, Puksibichan 30 km SW of Krounovka and 50 km SW of Ussurijsk ca. 140 m, 29. 07. 1990 (A. Sibatani), SM; Chitinskaya Oblast: I ♂, Chita [Shilka River of the Upper Amur], 06. 1920 (V. Tolmachov) ex Hone Collection, ╠└╩. CHINAЧChina NE (Manchuria), Heilon-jian Province : I ♂, Lahasusu at the merging point of Sungari/Songhua-Jiang, River with Heilong-jiang [= Amur River], 07. 1918, ex Hone Collection, ╠└╩; I ♀, Hatahe [probably near Linkou (W of Hanka Lake)], 6. 08. 1938 (Okabe), KUB; 2 ♂, labelled "Yu-chan, Mand [ ? = Yuchuan 50 km SE of Harbin, Man(d)churia] 28.07. 1938" (collector unknown), OMNH.

Holotype. ♂, FL 21,0 mm. Somewhat similar to Maculinea teleius (Bergsträsser) with which the species has often been confused, but it can be readily distinguished by several characters indicated below with asterisks. Dorsal wing surface dark brown with light blue scales filling disc from near wing base to subterminal zone except for areas near costa and dorsum, leaving ca. 3 mm-wide terminal dark band widening towards apex/costa; oblong black postmedian spots on FW from R3+5 to 1A+2B, the one between CuA1 and CuA2 much shifted basad* {cf. Figs 29A and B) and double markings in CuA2-1A + 2A much elongated, those on HW roundish, from costa to 1A+2A; cell-end bar represented by a strong crescent on FW, by a fine one on HW ; areas of blue discernible between these spots and bases of intervenous spaces. Ventral surface ground colour light gray, slightly brownish but without basal bluish suffusion on HW; postmedian spots of FW in typical Maculinea pattern with the spot in CuA1-CuA2 shifted proximad* (Fig. 29A) ; three spots including this and those in ╠у-CuAi are thus not in line but form a shallow arc concave distad (difference from alcon where they are in a straight line ; see Figs 29C and D) ; double spot in CuA2 -1A+2A as strongly marked as other postmedian spots* whereas in other Maculinea species this spot tends to be weekly marked or even obscure ; in FW cell, along cubitus just opposite to the base of CuA1, there is a small spot, which forms discrete double spots with the other one above it, situated near radius, which is displaced basad of the lower one so that the two spots are in a line pointing to tornus (see Fig. 29A)*. Submarginal spots well, bill marginal spots less well, marked. Fringes white.

Paratypes, ♂♂, FL 18.0-21.0 mm. They vary in extent of blue coloration on dorsal surface; generally suffusion of blue scales prominent in disc, often less extensive than in holotype, not appearing distad of postmedian spots, but sometimes little or no blue scales discernible (Figs 23 and 24), especially on HW, leaving black postmedian spots barely discernible in cephalic half on FW and entirely on HW ; both or either double spots in FW cell on ventral surface may be missing (Figs 20 and 21), often differing between the right and left wings.

♀♀, FL 17.3-22.2 mm. Dorsal surface variable as in ♂, sometimes almost uniformly dark brown, blue suffusion when present is usually paler than in ♂, often appearing as dull grayish markings distad of postmedian spots; ventral surface tends to be slightly darker in shade than in sympatric ♂♂. Otherwise as in ♂. Fringes even in dark specimens are, as in ♂, pure white, whereas is teleius fringes are brown in dark specimens and white in blue ones.

Variation is extensive in both sexes and on both wing surfaces, and it has so far not been possible to difine local subspecies by wing patterning, dorsally completely dark specimens being obtained both from Korea and China NE and upper Amur River, although there is a tendency of the blue colour on the dorsal wing being significantly reduced or completely lost among specimens obtained from inland.

Androconia. Remarkably, males of this species are totally devoid of androconia in either dark or blue individuals (see Table 1).

Genitalia. Male: The main feature is represented by that of the teleius group and subgroup. The difference from M. teleius may be summarized as follows: in kurentzovi, band-like lateral sclerite of aedoeagus short, slightly longer than the suprazonal portion of aedoeagus; valva with dorsal (outer) margin arched, ventral (inner) margin is most expanded at portion somewhat more proximad than in teleius, away trorn the level of the base of distal houk (see Figs 43 and 44 J-0), where the margin is bluntly angulate.

Female: Ventral sclerite of 6th abdominal segment rectangular, small and short, 0.57-0.58 x as long as lodix. Lodix quadrate, weakly dilated cephalad. Apophysis anterioris indistinct. Cavities of intersternal membrane circular. Genital plate large, caudal half nearly triangular, with a prominent swelling at dorsal base. Ductus bursae broadened at caudal portion. Eighth abdominal venter with rows of long hairs from subventral areas to caudal margin. Papilla analis large and strongly built, 0.46-0.50 x as long as 8th tergum. Apophysis posterioris wide and thick. As for species difference within the teleius group, distinct specific characters are seen in the structure around ostium. In dorsal surface of genital plate, a single swelling is present at dorsal base in kurentzovi, but in nausithous only median ridge is uresent. In teleius, there are two peculiar prominent swellings or protuberances which cover the ostium dorsally. Rows of long hairs at subventral areasof 8th abdominal venter are present in kurentzovi and nausithous, but absent in teleius.

Life history. Unknown.

Distribution. N Korea, southern Primorye, E and NE parts of China NE (at least Heilong-jiang Province), and along Amur River up to China.

In Korea, this species is known mostly from medium altitudes around 1,000 m. Localities of the west and central parts of Korean peninsula as indicatd by Mori, Doi & Cho (1934) remain obscure. Biotopes of Haesan Paramtec and Langdak, N Korea, are, according to Dr E. Palik, noi uniform: at Langdak, hills are covered partially by brushes with rich vegetation, and at Paramtec, at the altitude higher than Langdak, mountains below peak tops are partially covered by brushes and pine forest. This biotope was dispersed, usually situated on small passes; the adults, not plentiful, wandering from one such place to another, apparently together with M. teleius, which was rarer there. In Prirnor'e and inland the species occurs in lowlands. One ♂ from Puksibichan flew in a small area opened for agriculture but then abandoned, surrounded by woodland near a stream. Both M. teleius and M. arionides were also collected in the same season at the same area. Two ♂ from the inland along Amur River (Junction with Sungari, and Chita) have a very much reduced blue suffusion on dorsal surfaces of wings, but this feature is not unique to them.

Five paratypes were collected on one of the Polish Academy of Sciences expeditions to North Korea (Razowski, 1989). They and specimens in other collections were mixed up mostly with darkish specimens of M. teleius usually from the same area".

Orygin ― [Sibatani et al., 1994: 196 Ц 202]



Maculinea daurica Dubatolov, 1999 (bona sp.?- . .)


Translation of original description:

Maculinea kurentzovi daurica Dubatolov, ssp. n.

Materials. Holotype - a mate. Mongolia, East Aimak, 25-28 km S of the railway station Erentsav, the loop of the Shudu-Gol River, small willow bushes in a damp relief depression, 22.07.1996 (Dubatolov leg.). Paratypes: 2 males, the same data as the holotype; Russia, Chita Province: 1 female, the Upper Argun basin, 10 km S of Kalga, 8.08.1996 (Dubatolov, Brinikh leg.); 1 female, Nature Reserve лSokhondinskii╗, middle flow of the Agutsa River, near kordon Agutsa, 08.1989 (Maksimenko leg.); 1 female, SE vicinity of village Nizhnii village, a pine forest, 20.07.1996 (Dubatotov leg.); Russia, Aginskii Buryat National Region: 1 female, 8 km WNW of village Nizhnii Tsasuchei, left side of the Onon River, лMalyi Bator╗ locality, 11.07.1996 (Dubatolov, Kosterin leg.).

Male. Fore wing length of the holotype 18 mm. Fore wing rather trianglular shaped, with almost straight outer margin and stretched out apex. Upperside of both wings dark lead-blue with a wide (2 mm) dark-brown margin, elongate postdiscal spots and a discal spot of the same colour. Veins suffused with dark brown scales. Fore wing with a full row of dark lead-blue spots in submarginal area, on hind wing those spots are visible up to vein 6, fore part of the wing being entirely dark. Underside brown, fore wing has a small dark-brown spot in cell, another spot is on discal vein. Postdiscal row consists of 7 spots, that in space 2 being strongly extended proximally. Submarginal row is represented by 5-6 shadows. On hind wing underside there are 2 spots at the base, a discal bracket-like spot, 8 spots of postdiscal row and a row of double submarginal row, external spots being poorly visible. All these spots on hind wing underside have light rims.

Male genitalia. Similar to those of the nominotypical subspecies. Female. Fore wing length 17-21 mm. Wing upperside colouration is much darker than in male. Very dark lead-blue scales, if visible, are seen from the base to postdiscal row of spots. Disposition of spots is the same as in male. Wing underside is also the same as in male.

Notes on systematics. The new subspecies differs from the nominotypical one by a straight, not rounded, external margin of the fore wing, a more extended dark blue coloration of the wing upperside, by an elongated, not rounded, spot of the postdiscal row in the space 2 on the fore wing underside, and by a much darker coloration of the wing underside. The new subspecies ranges in the steppen zone, where it inhabits in more damp biotopes with Sanguisorba officinalis, in more northern areas of the Chita Provice (Chita vicinity, Argun basin) the nominotypical subspecies occurs.

Origin: [Dubatolov, Kosterin, 1999a : 180-182] ─єсрЄюыют . ., ╩юёЄхЁшэ . .. ─эхтэ√х ўх°єхъЁ√ы√х (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea) ьхцфєэрЁюфэюую чряютхфэшър л─рєЁш ╗ // ═рёхъюь√х ─рєЁшш ш ёюяЁхфхы№э√ї ЄхЁЁшЄюЁшщ, т√яєёъ II, ═ютюёшсшЁёъ, 1999. C.138-194.


Plebejus idas (Linnaeus, 1761)


The butterflies from the S. Ural and West Siberian Plain are close to the nominotypical ssp. The butterflies from Kuznetski Upland and the Altai are closer to P. subsolanus in a number of features (the UNS are paler, the border is wider in males).

They were recently described as ssp. sailjugemica Zhdanko et Samodurov, 1999 [TETHYS Entomolological Research, No. 1: 212-213]. The TL of the taxon is Saygyulem Mt. Range, the upper reaches of the Dzhumaly R. But the concrete information about idas in the eastern part of Siberia is still wanted. The Japan authors showed idas for the Baikal region and eastwardly, we noticed it in Yakutia [Ammosov, Korshunov, 1978]. There occur the butterflies similar to idas. It can be apparently seen in our texts that they began later to be compared with tancrei, but the grounds remain rather superficial and speculative, they must be supplemented with the electrophorese data, observations of prae-imaginal stages and presence of valid materials which are really wanted. It concerns fully the recent determination of tancrei as a subspecie of subsolanus on morphological grounds only [Fujioka, Nemoto, 1998].


Plebejus argyrognomon (Bergstrasser, 1779)


The butterflies from the Urals, W. Siberia, a part of the Altai and Prisayanye belongs to the ssp. caerulescens Grum-Grshimailo, 1893 differing from the European ones particularly by the extremely narrrow border on the wings in males. The ssp. chalcha Korshunov, 1970  is widespread in the Dzhazator R. basin (the Altai), in the adjacent territories of Tuva and in Mongolia. These butterflies have a brilliant-blue colouring of UPS in males. Such butterflies were earlier reckoned to the ssp. mongolica Rühl [Forster, 1965, etc.] or to mongolica Grum-Grshimailo [Kurentzov, 1970]. Both titles are borrowed brom the same sourse, [Rühl, Heyne, 1895], where a var. mongolica Gr.-Gr is noted. But their description reletes to P. argus L. and not to P. argyrognomon Brgstr.: Уdarkish violet-blue wings with a wide black outer matginФ. Thus, we were forced to describe a new ssp. with the purpose to avoid such a puzzle. Its main differences are bright colouring, large sizes, S. Siberian―Mongolian area.


Plebejus argyrognomon chalcha Korshunov, 1970

Translation of the original description:

лPlebejus argyrognomon chalcha Korshunov, ssp. n..

Male. FWl. 15 mm. The UPS are bright light-blue, weakly violet-shaded, with a rather narrow (not wider than 1 mm) black border along the snow-white fringe. The bases of fringe scales are darkened, the darkenings occupy various spaces on the HW, the inner part of the fringe seems to be chequered. Hardly seen dark points are in the ventral part of the HW along the outer edge.

The NHS are light-gray with a distinct whitish zone before of ochre-coloured bands on UNH. All the black dots along the edge of HW are nacre-shaded. The rest of the pattern is almost typical for the sp.

Female. FWl. is 15 mm. The contours of brown veins are clearly seen on the UPS (especially on the UPF). The FW from the base down to the back edge are dusted with violet-shaded light-blue scales. The HW have the same colour, but they have a 2-3 mm wide brown border. There are two rows of spots between the veins: the first consists of reddish and the second one of roundish dark spots. There is the third row of small dark spots just along the edge of HW. The rest of the pattern is almost identical to the typical.

Materials. Holotype ― a male. Tuva, 30 km SSE from Erzin, the edge the sand massive, 17 VII 1972 (Viidalepp). Allotype ― a female, Tere-Khol l., 17 VII 1972 (Ruben). Paratypes ― Terekhol l., 3 ♀ 6 ♂, 17.07.1972; Moren, Khayurakan c., grassy steppe places on the mt. slopes, on leguminous plants, 41 ♀ 56 ♂, 19-20 07 1972; tourist base Azas, meadows and steppified slopes, 2 ♀, 29 07 1972; Ak-Dovurak, dry steppe and semi-desert on the hills, 15 ♀ 17 ♂, 3 08 1972; Ayangaty, southern slopes and forest border, 9 ♀ 3 ♂, 5-6 08 1972 (Viidalepp); Alash r. valley, 2 ♀ 17 ♂, 29 07 1975 (Korshunov); Mongolia, Ara-Khangai Aimak (30 km to the east of Tsetserleg), 2♂, 1 07 1975 (Kozlov); Selenga Aimak, 25 km to the east of Darkhan, 1♀, 30 07 1975; Yero-Gol r. near Dulan-Khan, 1 ♂, fresh, 4 08 1974; 30 km to the ENE fon Dzun-Khary, 2 ♀, fresh, 6 08 1975 (Kozlov); Central Aimak, Sudzukte, 1♂, 3-6 08 1924, Sugnugur-Gol r., 1 ♂, 3 08 1924; Bayan-Gol r., 1 ♀ 1 ♂, 25-26 06 1924; Tola r. valley, 1 ♀ 1 ♂, 20-30 06, 1 ♂, 2-5 08 1925; Ulkhu-Bulun, 2 ♂, 10 08, 19 09 1925; Bukhugyn-Gol, 3 ♀ 4 ♂, 31 07 1925; Bichigt-Ulan-Khada ― Mishik-Gun, 4 ♀ 11♂, 30-31 08 ― 22 09 1925 (from the collections by P. K. KozlovТs expeditions); NW env. of Ulan-Bator, 1 ♂, 11 07 1967 (Kerzhner); Kerulen, 6 ♀ 1 ♂, 31 08 1975 (Kozlov); Khentei Aimak ― Old Bayan-Adraga, steppified meadow, 3 ♂, 26 08 1975; 40 km WNW of Delger-Khan, Bogd-Ula Mt., 2♂, old, 6 09 1975 (Kozlov); 13 km to the west of Dash-Balbir, steppe, 2 ♀ 2 ♂, 24 08 1975 (Kozlov); Uver-Khangai Aimak ― Kholt, 8 ♀ 14 ♂, 17 06-5 08 1926; Khan-Khugshin Mt., Ikhe-Modo, 2 ♂, 16 08 1926; Tsegeste-Gol r., IlТden-Beili-Khure cl., 2 ♀ 5 ♂, 29 09 1925; Ongiin-Gol r., 1 ♀ 1 ♂, 20 08 1926 (from the collections by P. K. KozlovТs expeditions); South Gobi Aimak ― Dzhargalange-Bulak spring, 2 ♀, 21 07 1926, Gun-Daichin-Khuduk well, 20 km to the WSW of Une-Khuduk, 1 ♀, 8 08 1971 (EmelТyanov).

NOTE. While the males of this ssp. are relatively uniform and differ only in sizes (FWl 16-17 mm, rarely more), the females have a rather changeable pattern of the UPS. The females can be dark-brown, sometimes without ochre spots, the blueish dusting can occupy almost the whole plate of the UPS or be only at the wing base.

Origin: New Sp., Novosibirsk, 1982, iss. 16, pp. 89-90.

The small butterflies of the ssp. transbaicalensis Kurentzov, 1970 are described on the ground of samples from Pribaikalye, Zabaikalye and the Stanovoj Plateau. In the Yakutia and Magadan Distr. the males have smaller red submarginal spots on the UNS and a darker colouring on the UPS Ц the ssp. jacutica Kurentzov, 1970. In the southern Far East dwell the large butterflies of the ssp. ussurica Forster, 1936.


Plebejus tancrei (Graeser, 1888)


The largest (FWl 15-17 mm) nominative ssp. dwells in the Lower Amur basin. The ssp. verchojanicus Kurentzov, 1970 is widely spread in the north of the E. Siberia, including Priokhotye: the butterflies are less, having a darker background of UNS, the border of males is narrower in average. The smallest butterflies of the sbsp. kamtchatica Kurentzov, 1970 occur from Kamchatka as far as Magadan distr. They differ from the Verkhoyansk ones in reduction of the border in males up to a hardly seen dark line. The taxon ternejana Kurentzov, 1970 was described as a sbsp. of argus from Sikhote-Alin on the base of two dark-lilac males with a slightly narrower dark border of the UPS, the inner side of the border is limited from inside by black teeth between the veins. This butterflies may belong to the sp. tancrei.

NOTE. A. B. Zhdanko installed лPlebejus kamtchatica Kurentzov, 1970, stat. n.╗ and described лPlebejus kamtchatica aborigeni Zhdanko, 1999╗ [TETHYS Entomological Research╗, No.1, 1999: 212-214], but every phrase in this article provokes a question. First of all, there is no clearty in the Уstudy of the typeФ. Wherefrom it came, if A. I. KurentzovТs collection (Vladivostok) was not mentioned? N. A. Azarova (1986) noted that this specimen лhas no belly ― УKamchatka, Nachiki, mountain tundra, 3 VII 1958Ф╗ and that Kurentzov indicated in his description August instead of July. The cause of the absence of the belly is evident: it was utilized for preparing the genital apparatus. It is clear that the author of the novelty didnТt see the original material and utilized the text of the original description. But it is said in [Kurentzov 1970] that kamtchatica has Уa lilac-blue colouring from above with a very narrow black line along the edges and a narrow white fringeФ, whereas A. Zhdanko makes us believe that this object differs supposedly by a Уlilac (not blue) colour of the upper side of wingsФ, etc., while the UPS of male aborigeni are Уlilac-blueФ. Other features show that Zhdanko described once again kamtchatica under title aborigeni. The genital apparatus is described in terms УwiderФ, УlongerФ, etc., but there is no comparative drawings, the illustrations from the original describtion arenТt concerned, while the fig. 100 [Kurentzov, 1970] show that the figures 5 (verchojanicus) and 8 (kamtchatica) are almost identical. The conclusion is evident: P. t. kamtchatica = P. k. aborigeni Zhdanko, 1999, syn. n.


Aricia eumedon (Esper, 1780)


The Uralian and Sibirian butterflies belong to the ssp. хumedon. The specimens from Kamchatka have no white streak on the UNH and smaller black points. The variation privata Staudinger, 1895 (TL ― NE Tibet) was established on these features, and it calls in question the taxon filgides P.Gorbunov, 1995 described in the book of 1995, p. 178. The butterflies with the white difuse pattern on the UNH inhabit Primorye, they were described as the ssp. albica.


Aricia eumedon albica Dubatolov, 1997 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

Original description:

УEumedonia eumedon albica Dubatolov, ssp. n.

MATERIAL. Holotype: ♂, Russia: лPrimorye, Anuchino Distr., 13-14 km N of Chernyshevka, a damp meadow, 17.07 1993 (Dubatolov & Zintshenko)╗. Paratypes: 9 ♂♂ 4 ♀♀, the same locality, 15,17.07 1993 (Dubatolov & Zintshenko); 1 ♂, Yakovlevka, 4.08 1981 (Ustjuzhanin); I ♂, Chuguevka Distr., Pavlovka River, middle flow, 25.07 1982 (Silchenko).

The original description:.

Male. FWl. 14 mm in the holotype, 14.5-17 mm in the paratypes. UPS dark brown; there are 1-2 orange crescent patches in a tornal angle of the HWs; sometimes there is a sign of a third crescent lunule between veins Ms and CuA. UNS grayish-brown with a conspicuous whitish tincture, especially visible on HW. Wing pattern of the same type as in the nominotypical ssp. but the white pattern is extended and strongly diffused. There are specimens of the new ssp. almost without the white streak between the discal spot and the postdiscal row of spots on UNH. The streak, if present, is not contrasted, its margins being strongly diffused.

Female. FWl. 14.5-16.5 mm. Wing pattern as in male, but there are always three orange lunules in the tornal angle, which are more expressed. A colouration and pattern of UNS as in male. One female paratype has very strong whitish tincture, so UNS colouration is not brownish but grayish-white.

NOTES. The nominotypical ssp. Eumedonia e. eumedon (Esper, 1780) is distributed from Europe throughout Siberia up to Amur Distr. (a personal communication of A. Streltzov) and Sakhalin Is. [1]. E. e. albica ssp. n. differs from the E. e. eumedon by a strong whitish tincture on the UNS and by diffuse white pattern. The specimens from Europe and Siberia have UNS always brown, with white pattern very clear and contrasted. A report of another ssp., E. e. ambigua (Staudinger, 1899), for the Sakhalin by Ch. Junichi [1] in fact refers to the nominotypical one as it is clear from the nice colour slides. The specimens of the new ssp. formerly were att- ributed to E. e. f. fylgia Spangberg, 1876 [2], or to E. e. eumedon [3], or to E. e. ambigua [1, 4]. The ssp. E. e. ambigua was described from the mountains of Eastern Middle Asia with unprecise type locality: лTura╗ [6]; later the type locality was specified to the Ferghana Distr. of the former Russian Empire [7]. The First Figure of E. e. ambigua was published by A. Seitz [5]. There are some specimens of E. e. ambigua from the mountains of Tadzhikistan in the collection of Siberian Zoological Museum with fuzzy margins of the white pattern, but this fuzzing is not so strong as in new ssp., and the butterflies are smaller and whitish tincture on UNS is lacking╗.

Origin: Far East. Entomol.,1997, No. 51, pp. 9-10.


Aricia nicias (Meigen, 1830), fig. 1, 2


The butterflies from the Urals and the West-Siberian Plain differ from the Mid-European ones by the narrower bordering on the UPS of males and the pallid underside of hindwings. Their name Aricia nicias kolosovi Korshunov, 1995 is new and was given the subspecies of nicias instead of septentrionalis Krulikowsky in Seitz, 1909 because of presence of Lycaena icarus septentrionalis Fusch, 1900.

In Altai and the Kuznetsk Plateau lives the ssp. bittis Fruhstorfer, 1915: these butterflies have a light-blue colouring, the darkening extends from the border as far as the entire outer margin; the size of the specimens is smaller, the UNS dimmer. The ssp. borsippa Fruhstorfer, 1915 was described for Zabaikalye.


Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg, 1775)


For the W.-Siberian Lowland the ssp. fuchsi Sheljuzhko, 1928 was described; the butterflies are large with wide wings of a bright violet tint. In the C. Jakutia occurs the ssp. ammosovi Kurentzov, 1970, represented by small dark-blue butterflies whose narrow orange spots are almost reduced. For the mountains of S. Siberia we have the ssp. korshunovi and from the southern Far East the ssp. omelkoi:

╧Ёштюфшь юЁшушэры№э√х юяшёрэш  яюфтшфют Polyommatus icarus korshunori ш Polyommatus icarus omelkoi.


Polyommatus icarus korshunori P. Gorbunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2)

Translation of the original description:

лIn the populations of the S. Siberia the appearance of butterflies is very diverse. However, in arid regions there are smaller individuals in average, with somewhat narrower wings, a whitish UNS ground colour in males and grayish in females, they are evidently predominate. The orange submarginal spots in them are smaller than in the butterflies from the northern regions and are isolated from each other. The females have or have not red small submarginal lunules on the UPS, which are often substantially dusted with blue scales. Based on these characters we state a ssp. Polyommatus icarus korshunovi P.Gorbunov, ssp. n.

MATERIALS: The holotype: ♂ - 26.05.1990, Tuva, the Erzin River valley (V.V. Dubatolov). Paratypes: ♂ - the same locality; 2 ♀♀ 27.07.1972, Tuva, Toora-Khem (Yu.P. Korshunov); ♀ 19.08.1962, Tuva, the Tes[-Khem] River (N. Violovich); a fenale and ♂ - 17.06.1963, the same locality; 2 ♂♂ - 18.06, 1987, Tuva, the Toszha Distr., Lake Azas, (V. Zinchenko); ♂ - 1-5.05.1993, Tuva, the Kyzyl city environs (D. Logunov); 2 ♂♂ - Tuva, the Shivilig-Khem River, a bushy steppe (O. Kosterin); 3 ♂♂ - 21.06.1907, SE Altai, the Chuiskaya Steppe, Kosh-Agach; ♀ - 13.07.1097, the Chuiskii Tract road, the Kuraiskaya Steppe [a collector is dropped - it was E.G. Rodd] ; ♀ - 19.07.1966, SE ALtai, between the mountain Supor and the Chuiskaya Steppe, 2000-2400 m [above the sea level].

Origin: Dnevnye babotchki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p.????


Polyommatus icarus omelkoi Dubatolov et Korshunov, 1995 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4)

Translation of the original description:

лButterflies from the southern Far East differ from the Siberian ones by a rather larger size (FWl. being 17-19 mm in males, 16.5-18 mm), reduction of the basal dusting with glittering scales on the UNH, which usually does not extend out of the row of basal spots, enlarged black dots on the UNS, and a lighter (whitish) UNS ground colour in males. By these characters we state a ssp. Polyommatus icarus omelkoi Dubatolov et Korshunov, ssp. n.

MATERIALS: Holotype: ♂ - 17.07.1993, Primorie, the Anuchinskii Distr., 14 km north of Chernyshevka (V.V. Dubatolov, V.K. Zinchenko). Paratypes: 2 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀ - 15.07.1993, the same locality; 1 ♂ - 18.07.1993, 20 km NNW of Chernyshevka, Kamenistyi Klyuch, a road in a montane broadleaved forest; 4 ♂ - 11 and 13.07.1981, 21.07.1982, 11.07.1985, N Korea (Im Khon An).

The subspecies is named in honour of Michail Michailovich OmelТko, a lepidopterologist in the Ussuriiskii Reservation, an explorer of the life history of a number of butterfly sp. of the SouthernPrimorie.╗

Origin: Dnevnye babochki, Ekaterinburg, 1995, p.


Polyommatus icadius (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)


The geographical variation of icadius is great [Jdanko, 1993], but this is not reflected in the nomenclature. The butterflies discovered by V. Ivonin in 1998, Altai, were immediately described by us as a new ssp. Their location in the Argut R. basin, at headstream of the Dzhazator R. was unexpected. There was no previous evidence of this sp. in the Altai. In the Dzhazator R. valley and in the valleys of its tributaries the butterflies were observed on the steep rocky slopes covered with curtains of chick-pea Cicer soongoricum.

The butterfies were perching on overcast days on chick-pea bushes, frequently inside the curtains. In the heat of the day the males would fly actively over the lilac-blue flowers of chick-pea curtains in search of females, perching sometimes on stones or herbs. The females kept to the chick-pea bushes, occasionally flying from curtain to curtain. The males were found on humid ground much more frequently than the females. The Altai butterflies in question were designated as Polyommatus icadius cicero Ivonin and Kosterin, 2000. The Altai form differs from the rest of this sp. by the similarity of the uppersides to icarus, and of the underside to amanda. The considerable isolation of these butterflies from the others and their particular appearance enable us to suppose that their status is higher than subspecific one, but additional evidence (first of all the prae-imaginal data) is wanted. A desideratum is the investigation of the S. Altai Mt. Range, where the chick-pea grows, in order to find there the Copper-butterfly in question.


Polyommatus icadius cicero Ivonin et Kosterin, 2000 (fig. 1, 2, 3)

The original description:

УPolyommatus icadius cicero subspec, nov.

Material: Holotype : УDzhazatorФ [data on the labels: Russia, Siberia, Altai Mts., Kosh-Agach Distr., precipitous steppefied southern slopes of the Dzhazator River right bank 5 km UPWtream of the Zhumaly River mouth, about 1900 m alt.], 21.V11.1998. Allotype ♀: same locality and date. Paratypes: УDry Mountains* [data on the labels: Russia, Siberia, Altai Mts., Kosh-Agach Distr., steppes on southern slopes of a range on the Dzhazator River left bank next to the Akbul River mouth, about 2000 m alt.]: 27.V1.1998, 1 , 11.V11.1998, 1 , 12.V11.1998, 4 ♂♂, 14.V11.1998, 1 : 17.V11.1998, 3 ♂♂; 19.VU.1998, 7 ♂♂, 1 ♀; 20.V11.1998, 8 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ (V. ivOnin, O. kosterin leg.); УDzhazatorФ: 20.VII,1998, 22 ♂♂, 15 ♀♀ (O. kosterin leg.); 21.V11.1998, 8 ♂♂. 21 ♀♀ (V. ivonin leg.).

The holotype, allotype, and part of the paratypes are kept in the Siberian Zoological Museum, Novosibirsk, a part of the type series is kept in the private collection by V. Ivonin, few paratypes are transferred to EMEM (Entomologische Museum, Marktieuthen, Eitschberger).

Male ─ colour plate XIII, figs. 1, 2: FWl. 17-19 mm (17 mm in the holotype), wing expanse 29-31 mm (29 mm in the holotype). Ground colour of UPS does not differ from specimens from other regions being bright light-violet-blue with a narrow (about 0.3 mm) black border and a white fringe; hindwing fore margin mainly blackish in front of the vein Rs. Ground colour of UNS very light ash-gray. Basal suffusion of hindwing glittering greenish-blue, it occupies between ¼ and 5/6 of the wing area, as a rule it expands to an imaginary line going from the basal black spot in the space between Sc+RI-Rs to the ventral angle. On the hindwing the submarginal orange spots are well developed and of a saturated colour; as a rule the orange colour is distinctly seen even on the foremost spots in the spaces Sc+RI-Rs and Rs-MI, but in some specimens may disappear from these spots. Dark submarginal spots are well seen also on the forewings, two of them, those in scapes M3-Cu1 and Cu1-Cu2, as a rule being accompanied with orange colour. On the forewing a black spot in the cell may be absent (in about one third of specimens), strongly reduced or normally developed. White-rimmed black discal spots are well expressed both on hind- and forewings. There are from four to six (five in the holotype) postdiscal black spots on the forewing, they are bright and distinct, with inconspicuous white rims. A white brand between medial and postdiscal rows of black spots is not seen. Genitalia: of the structure typical for the Polyommatus icarus sp. group.

Female. Forewing length 17-18 mm (17 mm in the allotype),wing expanse 28-31 mm (28 mm in the allotype). In 12 of 42 females collected, the UPS is evenly dark-brown (colour plate XIII, figs. 5, 6), sometimes with some admixture of blue scales in the basal area. On both wings darker submarginal spots are noticeable, accopmanied with bracket-shaped orange spots. On the forewing there are two or three hardly noticeable spots, or none, on the hindwing there are four to six spots, three of six of which are well expressed. In 30 females (including the allotype) the UPS is mainly deep violet-blue (colour plate XIII, figs. 3, 4), the foremargin of both wings being blackish-brown up to vein R5 on the forewing and MI on the hindwing. On the forewing the violet-blue area is bordered with dark submarginal spots fused to each other and to the wing margin, the orange spots on them being absent or hardly noticeable. Transversal vein on the forewing outlined with a black discal spot. On the hindwing the blue-violet colour area extends to the wing margin narrowly bordered with black and contains a row of round black submarginal spots accompanied proximally with black chevrons, spaces between the black spots and chevrons being occupied with orange spots, well expressed in the lower part of the wing and disappearing towards the foremargin; discal spot absent. Ground colour of UNS relatively dark, brownish-gray, basal suffusion on hindwing glittering-green and rather narrow as hardly reaching a row of 3-4 basal black spots. All submarginal orange spots are large, well developed on both wings; they hardly decrease in size to the wing fore margins and often are fused to each other. All black markings on the forewing are larger than on the hindwing. On the forewing there are as a rule two basal spots (one residing in the cell), they are absent in about ¼ of the specimens. White brand between medial and submarginal rows of black spots well expressed. Genitalia: as in the nominotypical ssp. (fig. 1) but in all the six specimens studied the basis of the antevaginal plate is not so concave as it is depicted on fig. 1 in zhdanko (1993); noteworthy, this concavity is not seen in all the females from the Pamirs studied by us.


The butterflies of the new ssp. differ from the Dzhungarian ones, which we consider as belonging to the nominotypical ssp. (colour plate XIII, figs. 7, 8), first of all by much more expressed orange submarginal spots on the UNS. In the males they as a rule are of an intensive colour and are present up to the wing fore margin, in the lower part of the wing they are large, occupying half of the interval between the black spots of the submarginal and medial rows, and are almost fused to each other, their black rims being pointed chevrons. In the Dzhungarian specimens the orange spots are dull and small, they occupy less than half of the interval between the black spots of the submarginal and medial rows and are separated from each other by spaces almost equal the spotsТ widths, their black rims being rounded brackets. In the new ssp. the greenish-blue suffusion is more developed on the hindwing, the ground colour is as a rule somewhat darker as compared with the Dzhungarian butterflies. As different from the new ssp., the Dzhungarian and Pamirian males have no or hardly noticeable discal spot. The males of the new ssp. have no white brand on the hindwing, which is noticeable, although very uncontrasted, in some Dzhungarian and the majority of Pamirian males. Unfortunately, we have at our disposal no females from the Dzhungarian or North Tien Shan for comparison, while differences between the Altaian and Pamirian females are drastic: the latter are much smaller, the ground colour of their UNS is paler, the orange submarginal spots on the UNS are much smaller and paler while on the upperside they are more developed as being large and well noticeable on the forewing as well. Unfortunately, zhdanko (1993) in his paper did not mentioned deep-blue females, but he communicated us personally that such 99 occur throughout the sp. range. As we see, in Altai they dominate.


The ssp. is named after the most splendid figure of the ancient Roman culture, whose generic name had been derived from the word УcicerФ meaning УpeaФ or УchickpeaФ, a close relative of the P. icadius larval foodplant.Ф

Origin: Atalanta (August 2000) 31(1/2): 171-177, XIII.


Polyommatus kamtschadalus (Sheljuzhko, 1933)


Polyommatus kamtschadalus taimyrensis Korshunov, 1982 (fig. 1, 2, 3, 4)

Translation of the original translation:

УMale. FWl. 16 mm. The UPF are light-sky-blue with a brilliant tint. The nominotypical ssp. is marked by sky-blue UPF with a expresed tint. The buttreflies of the nominotypical ssp look many much bright, the darkenings along veins before the dark border rim sre quite distinct. The UPH look dimmer, the red spots on the UNH have a rather lighter tiont (the typical specimens have bright-red ones). The HW discal spot dor\esnt bear a black streak (the typical eros has usually such a streak). 2 of 9 paratypes of the new ssp. has a little dark streak.

Female. FWl. 15 mm. The UPS are brown dusted with blueish scales, the sufffusion is especially distinct in basal zones. The dark dots at the inner edge of the HW are surronded with blue scales, which are numerous in the fore zone being red. In the typical eros  the dark dots at the back edge of the HW are not rimmed or only sliightly rimmed with light-blue scales, they are limited from before by bright red-scaled spots. As for as the bluiesh dusting, it may be well-developed in typical eros miss quiteli. The paratype ♀of the new ssp. has a fairly weak sky-blue dusting, too.

Th UNS background is ash-gray, all the spots are more tiny, the discal ones on the HW have no dark streak. The typical eros has a light-brown background, large spots; the discal spots bear within a rule a dark streak.

MATERIALS. Holotype ― ♂. midstr.. of the  Rybnaya R., 27.07.1978. Allotype ―♀, ibid. Paratypes ―  Lake Keta, 22.07 ― 2♂♂; 28.07.1980 ― 1♂; misatr. of the Rybnaya R., 22-23.07.1978 ― 1♀, 9♂♂, leaf-bearing forest, D. M. Pipavkin leg.Ф

Origin: Fauna of Siberia [ ╘рєэр ╤шсшЁш. ╧юыхчэ√х ш тЁхфэ√х эрёхъюь√х ╤шсшЁш. ╚чфрЄ.╗═рєър╗], Novosibirsk, 1982, pp.84-85.

In the Kolyma R. basin and in the Verkhojanye one finds the ssp. extremiorientalis Kurentzov, 1970. The nominotypical ssp. dwells in Kamchatka. Since the name kamtschadalus is not very suitable for the sp., we had try to replace it by herzi Korshunov, 1995, but we ascertained later that venus Herz had been cited by O. Staudinger [? Venus Herz, Iris XI, p. 237, ? Witim (var.)], but without description, therefore the name herzi Korshunov is invalid.


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